On the other side of Putin's lies
This is a volunteer initiative in which 30 independent fact-checkers, analysts and activists analyzed in detail Vladimir Putin's article "On the historical unity of Russians and Ukrainians" and checked it for fakes and manipulations.
fact checkers, analysts,
manipulative theses *
explained in detail
* Some theses contained manipulation and lies
Article by the President of the Russian Federation
This is nothing more than a method of Russian propaganda about Ukraine. Vladimir Putin (and those who prepared this material) used the whole arsenal of manipulations: concealment of facts, substitution of concepts, labeling, false connections, false analogies, false interpretations, appeal to their own rhetorical questions, shifting emphasis, combining truth and falsehood, outright lies. This is not the whole list of technologies that help the aggressor country to implement its propaganda narratives. Many theses do not contain facts and are just an unproven lie. Therefore, their refutation involves an explanation of the true state of affairs and the introduction of context. Russia is trying to rewrite history to use it as a weapon in a hybrid war against Ukraine.
We hope that this site will be useful for anyone who has to communicate and discuss with supporters of Putin's lies and those who want to understand for themselves where exactly Russian propaganda is misleading.
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Article Key Points
Click on the thesis to find out the explanation.
Next to each thesis, you will find links to materials where you can learn more.
ExplanationThe concept of "Ancient" Rus is a narrative of Russian historical propaganda to promote the thesis of fraternal people. It includes myths of the "Old Rus State" and "Old Rus peoples", which arose under the Stalinist regime. In his speeches, Vladimir Putin often claims that Kievan Rus or Old Rus state and Russia are one concept. This technology is called the "substitution of concepts". As for the rest of the sentence, Rus was the largest state in Europe. Of course, a certain indirect connection between Belarus, Russia and Kievan Rus exists, but it does not make us one nation. Initially, Kievan Rus included the lands of Kyiv, Chernihiv, and Pereyaslav regions. This is the territory of modern Ukraine. During the 10th and early 12th centuries, when Rus became one of the largest states in Europe, its territory stretched to all the lands of the East Slavs and many non-Slavic tribes (Finno-Ugric tribes of Murom, Merya, Veps, Baltic Goliad, Torks and Berendei, etc.). Not only Russians, Ukrainians, or Belarusians have a share of the "Rus" heritage, but also Poles, Lithuanians, and other people. The thesis about Ukrainians, Belarusians, and Russians being heirs of Kievan Rus is used in politics. Substitution of history began in the days of the tsarist Russia. Read more
Explanation:No primary source has been preserved to our days to shed light on the language situation in Kievan Rus, and there is no consensus on the language situation in different periods of its development. One of the most popular theories suggests two forms of oral language (oral folk dialect and oral-literary Koine, "common dialects" for many segments of the population), and two written and literary languages - Old Kyiv (Old Ruthenian) and Church Slavonic. In the days of Kievan Rus the most common language form was the vernacular in different versions. It was not homogeneous even in the bygone (Proto-Ukrainian) territory, and especially on the whole territory of Kievan Rus. Speech patterns in the Ukrainian territories varied in phonetics, vocabulary, and some language expressions. However, people could communicate with each other. Population of Kyiv and Pskov or Polotsk regions spoke even more differently. Historian Hryhoriy Pivtorak argues that by the XII-XIII centuries the main phonetic features that distinguish Ukrainian, Belarusian and Russian languages, for the most part, have already developed. All three languages originated not from the common East Slavic language, but as a result of regrouping of six ancient East Slavic dialect paradigms into new areas. As for the non-Slavic tribes, they still have their own languages, different from the Proto-Ukrainian language.
Explanation:«The "whole Rus" which Volodymyr baptized, in fact included Kyiv and Novgorod. As of 988, the Rus Land (the official name of the state) was considered to inlude the area around Kyiv, Chernihiv, and Pereyaslav. That is Central Ukraine. Historian Kyrylo Galushko explains чthat Christianity reached the territory of modern Russia after a much longer period, and with bigger complications. "Revolt against baptism" ("the Magi Revolt") took place in the late eleventh century, a hundred years after the "baptism of Kievan Rus". Russian principalities minted coins with pagan symbols on them well into the XV century. So Kyiv, which was the sacred city of Kievan Rus and nowadays is the capital of Ukraine, was the only city that has been baptized "by mutual consent." In general, the issue of religion is very manipulative, as for several centuries Moscow metropolitanate carried out the annexation of the Kyiv metropolitanate using black PR technologies and bribing the clergy in Constantinople, contrary to the position of Ukrainian clergy. During the Revolution of Dignity, the churches of Moscow Patriarchate openly pursued anti-Ukrainian rhetoric and incited hostility. Read more
Explanation:The term "Old Rus State" started to widely circulate during the Soviet times when historians of that time tried to replace the source-based concept of "Kievan Rus" with "Rus". This substitution aimed to establish an untruthful theory about the origin of Rus in Novgorod, and the subsequent transition of capital to Kyiv due to its convenient location on the "Route from the Varangians to the Greeks," around which "Old Rus state centered in Kyiv" was supposedly formed. This term helps to ground the fake thesis about the common origin of the territories of modern Ukraine and Russia and convenietly emphasizes the myth of "one nation". The community of historians considers the approximate year of origin of Kievan Rus to be about 882. The quote from "The Tale of Bygone Years" is true: "Oleg will become a prince in Kyiv, and Oleg will say: Kyiv is the mother of Rus' cities".
Explanation:The fact of the political fragmentation of Ukraine-Rus is undeniable. Putin does not mention the Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia as the successor of Ukraine-Rus. The author presents a thesis with a clearly twofold political goal: on the one hand, to reproach "rebellious" Ukrainians who are not eager to "live in harmony with the older brother", on the other hand, to convince his own population that to avoid "the miseries" of life under famous "stability," they should obey central power. In the beginning of the twelfth century, Rus was still one of the largest states in Europe and stopped being a Slavic state. Rus population consisted of more than 20 nationalities: Merya and Chud, Lithuania and Yatvyagi, Pechenegs and Polovtsians, and so on. The rapid accession of lands one by one largely preceeded the development of the government, infrastructure, and, as a consequence, unified Rus community. Fragmentation was not a problem just for Rus, but also the natural stage of evolution of any society of that time.
Explanation:The conquest of Rus by Khan Batu's army in 1237-1242 was enabled by considerably outnumbered troops of Rus princes, and discord of the princes' actions. It has also confirmed the superiority of Mongol martial arts over European, manifested during the Battle on the Kalka River in 1223. As the result of the Mongol invasion, the "Horde yoke" was established on the lands of Rus princes, and political, economic, and ethnocultural development of Rus was inhibited. As a result of the joint struggle of the Ruthenians and Lithuanian princes against the Tatar-Mongol conquerors in 1362, a large area of Rus lands (Chernihiv-Sivers'ka territory, Podillya, Kyiv territory, Eastern Volhynia) was liberated from the yoke, and these lands were annexed to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Rus, Samogitia, etc. At the same time the Moscow principality – also known as the Grand Duchy of Moscow – belonged to the so-called North-Eastern Rus and was under the direct rule of the Golden Horde until 1480. From 1328, Moscow princes received a charter from the Khan of the Golden Horde for the title of Grand Duke of Vladimir. Moscow became a center for collecting tribute in favor of the Khan. Therefore, Moscow remained under the rule of the Golden Horde up until 1480, while the Lithuanian-Ruthenian state incorporated the lands of Kievan Rus in 1362. The formation of the Ukrainian nation has begun, focused on the European values of the time: university education, Magdeburg law for city self-government, guild self-organization of artisans. That is why Ukrainians differ from Russians. Ukraine chose a different path of civilizational development. Putin also keeps silent about the influence of the Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia on the formation of Ukrainians. One of the Russian myths speaks of 200 years of the Tatar yoke in Rus. Rus is Chernihiv, Kyiv, Pereyaslav. The Horde ruled here only for 120 years. According to historian Boris Cherkas, if we take into account the lands of Moscow, we can say that objectively the Moscow principality was created by the Khan Tokhtamysh. He burned Moscow, but he made Moscow princes the Great Princes as long as the descendants of Tokhtamysh ruled in the Golden Horde. And the name of the great Khan Tokhtamysh was on the Moscow coins "denhi".
Explanation:If we follow Putin's logic, we can talk about a common history, for example, with Germany, because William II was a cousin of the Russian tsar, and a grandson of Britain's Queen Victoria. According to the decision of the Treaty of Versailles, he was named the culprit of the First World War. If we follow this logic, the whole story can be called common. Now about the historical events mentioned by the author of the article. The Battle of Kulikovo is mentioned much later than its actual date. For example, "The Tale of the Mamay Massacre" was writen in the beginning of the XVI century. The descriptions closer to the date of the event have less heoism and actual facts. That is why we can talk about a significant artistic exaggeration, described by Russian sources. Soviet history, as the history of tsarist Muscovy, was creating a heroic epic. According to historian Vadym Aristov, Dmytro Volynsky (or Volynets) is not mentioned in sources that are dated closer to the battle. However, we can have no doubt that he was present at the service of Dmytro Donsky at that time, He was mentioned in previous years and of the events in which he participated. "It is believed that the Battle of Kulikovo is mentioned in some German sources at the time. But there this event is called the Battle of the Blue Water. There is a lot of room for hypotheses: do we not know something about the Battle of Kulikovo, did the German authors mean not the Battle of Kulikovo, but the Battle of the Blue Waters, or did they confuse or confuse these events? .. This raises many questions. ," - adds the historian. Also, some historians question not only the scale of the battle, but also the fact of its existence, because in the theoretical scene have not yet found any human remains or remnants of military equipment. This resonates very well with the chronicles of at least 50-60 thousand soldiers from the Moscow principality (with the next chronicle, this number increased) and 30 thousand soldiers from Mamaia. Vladimir Putin has silenced a series of battles involving Lithuanian-Ruthenians forces against the Mongol army. 1263 - Mindaugas' nephew at the mouth of the Pripyat River, Lithuanian Prince Radivil Montilovich with a Russian-Lithuanian army, defeats the Volga Tatars, led by Batu's grandson Kidan, who sent ambassadors to Novogrudok to pay tribute for five years.The Chronicle of Lithuania and Samogitia mentions the Battle of Okuniv, during which the Lithuanian-Ruthenians army defeated the hordes of the Mongol-Tatar Khan and effectively liberated Rus from the Horde. However, the Russian version of the story conceals this information. It will also be recalled that the Battle of Orsha took place on September 8, 1514, when a combined Lithuanian-Ruthenians-Polish force led by Prince Konstantin Ostrogsky defeated the troops of the Moscow voivode Ivan Chelyadin. Read more...
Explanation:This statement is based on the linguistic theory of Alexei Shakhmatov about the origin of East Slavic languages. Behind it there was one language - the so-called "Old Russian language" - common to both Halych and Rostov, and after its collapse, due to external layers, allegedly formed Ukrainian, Belarusian and Russian languages.Yuri Shevelyov broke this theory most thoroughly in his work "Historical Phonology of the Ukrainian Language". According to the analysis of the peculiarities of the phonological system, he proved that after the disintegration of the Proto-Slavic language in the VI century, not one "Old Russian" language, but 5 dialect zones were formed on the territory of Eastern Slavs. The transformation of these regions into Ukrainian, Belarusian and Russian began in the VI century and lasted until the XI century. Learn more...
Explanation:The phrase "until the XV century." the author tries to mislead, creating the illusion that from the first metropolitan to the XV century. this leadership was in Moscow. It is not a question of unity, because the only leadership in Kyiv did not suit the Moscow princes, who were constantly trying to create a separate Moscow department or at least appoint "their" metropolitan. But Constantinople did not agree for several centuries. The process of division and decline of the Kyiv metropolitanate began in the thirteenth century. Since then, a separate Galician metropolitanate has been proclaimed several times in western Ukraine. Under the Metropolitans of Kyiv Saints Peter Rathensky and Theognostus, the seat of the Kyiv Metropolitans was actually transferred to Moscow.Historian Kirill Galushko explains that in 1448 the Moscow diocese separated from Constantinople and remained uncanonical (unrecognized by Constantinople) for a century. Mention in the title of Metropolitan as Metropolitan of Kiev and All Russia did not suit the Moscow princes, they needed a separate Moscow patriarch. The Galician metropolitanate existed separately in the Russian lands, which included the Galician, Volodymyr-Volyn, Przemyśl, Lutsk, Turiv, and Kholm dioceses. After the Kyivan metropolitans moved to Moscow and tried to abolish the Galician diocese, Polish kings Casimir III the Great and Wladyslaw II Jagiello nominated bishops to Constantinople for ordination. Read more...
Explanation:There was no Moscow or Lithuanian movement, a term coined to explain the renaming of Muscovy to Russia. The borders of "Russia" were clear in ancient times, they were within the boundaries of modern Ukraine. From the time the Mongols conquered these territories until the 18th century, no one considered the former northeastern outskirts of Russia to be ethnically related to the Ukrainian lands. The processes of ethnogenesis took place in these lands in different directions. Much closer alliances of Ukrainians were with the Lithuanian lands, united into one state - the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Russia and Samogitia. Like the term "yoke" or "yoke", it appeared in the 17th century to justify the backwardness of the Muscovy from Europe at the time. This is roughly how modern Russia justifies its lag behind European civilization by waging war with Germany. The legends created around the figure of the adopted son of Khan Batu - Alexander Nevsky and his fictional battles are still actively cultivated in modern Russia. However, they conceal the fact of vassal dependence of the Muscovite princes on the Mongol khans - they all ruled only with the permission of the horde (they were faithful and submissive, for which they received the so-called "label for rule"). We must not forget the support of the Crimean Khan's troops in the fight against the Lithuanian-Russian state. Namely, the Moscow Empire paid tribute to the Crimea at least until 1700. It is also not mentioned that the Moscow-Horde troops actually destroyed the Tver, Yaroslavl, Rostov, Pskov principalities. Moscow also committed genocide in conquered Novgorod, the social structure of which was most in line with ancient Russian models. This introduced for many centuries the principles of the Moscow and Russian states - lies, intrigue and brutal murder of enemies; and the state began to be built on Horde models. In fact, Moscow was not the successor of Russia, but on the contrary, its enemy, the enemy of its traditions. From the same period in Moscow society is the assertion of the principle of succession to the throne "older brother", without the consent of the council or the boyars. At the time of Muscovy's claims to the Russian heritage, this principle was used and later transferred to the alleged ethnic unity.
Explanation:The thesis is presented in order to show the role of the Moscow principality as a "center of reunification and preservation of ancient n statehood." In fact, by the time Moscow overcame its dependence on the Mongol-Tatars, most of the Russian lands had already been gathered in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and were the dominant group there, directly involved in the formation of the state. Moreover, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania consolidated the Russian lands peacefully. The local elites of the Ukrainian and Belarusian lands had considerable influence and were an integral part of the political and cultural life of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Until the 15th century, there was the Galician metropolitanate, whose metropolitans were ordained in Constantinople while Muscovy tried to annex the Kyiv metropolitanate. Further alliance with the Kingdom of Poland was conditioned by the need to confront common external threats and brought benefits to local elites. Along with the economic development of the Ukrainian lands of the XVI century, the colonization of steppe territories, it is at this time there is a strong cultural growth, educational centers are created, social movement (brotherhood) is developing, the religious sphere is being reformed. That is, there are those processes that were not available in the Moscow kingdom. Regarding directly voiced theses:
- The process of accepting Catholicism by the top of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania began after the Kreva Union of 1385, but lasted for a couple of centuries and did not take place in the fourteenth century, even at the end of the sixteenth century. In addition, the religious map of the state was much more complex than the opposition of Orthodox Catholics, because in the northern lands of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the XVI century, Protestantism is gaining popularity among the elite.
- One of the reasons for the Lublin Union was the aggressive foreign policy of Moscow's Tsar Ivan the Terrible, which forced the elites of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania to come into closer contact with Poland. Moreover, it was the Ukrainian princes, descendants of the Rurik family, who supported the entry of Ukrainian lands into the Kingdom of Poland as part of the Commonwealth.
- The creation of the Commonwealth consolidated the rights of the nobility, including n princes, giving them access to government in contrast to the authoritarian Moscow Empire. In addition, it has given access to the Baltic ports and the export of wheat, the prices of which have just risen sharply, to the countries of northern Europe.
- The Polish Catholic nobility did not receive significant land holdings in Russia, the main landowners continued to be the local gentry of the n lands, who were also one of the most influential magnates of the Commonwealth (Ostroh, Vyshnevetsky family), although most magnates eventually became Polish. in the cultural sphere./span>
- The initiators of the Brest Union and the creation of the Greek Catholic (Uniate) Church were the Orthodox clergy themselves - bishops (only 2 bishops did not support the union) and the Metropolitan of Kyiv. The union did not introduce any Latinization or polarization, as it retained the traditional Orthodox rites and language of worship. In addition, this process was a continuation of the pan-European process of reform and counter-reformation and was conditioned by objective historical realities, and not initiated by the Polish leadership (although of course it was supported by it).
Explanation:There is no such term in history as the "liberation movement of the Orthodox population." These events are called "Khmelnytsky" and "National Liberation War". Thus, the information was purposefully presented as if the only reason for this War of Liberation was a religious issue. The causes of the National Liberation War were not only religious, but primarily political and national. On February 24, 1649, the Cossack Claims to King Jan Casimir and the Polish Government were signed. They do cite a quote from Vladimir Putin. However, there are also the following words: "Because the whole first war started because of Chaplinsky, who, despite the fact that I had the privileges of the king of his mercy, took away my farm, and threatened me, Khmelnytsky, with death, and all this fire flared up through him to be handed over to the future, God willing, commission. " Other documents of Bohdan Khmelnytsky and the Zaporozhian Army speak of the oppression of the Cossacks and peasants, the confiscation of property and forced labor. For example, a document from November 1648 states: "May there always be 12,000 Cossacks and may the privilege received from the sacred memory of the king with the signature of four senators be valid.
- That there is no quartz army, and they themselves will defend the Commonwealth.
- To give Khmelnytsky in Ukraine an old age that he likes, and this old age 20 miles of land.
- That the lords do not punish their subjects and forgive all these rebelites.
- So that you can go to sea when you want and in any number.
- That the Cossacks be judged by the law of the Lithuanian Tatars, and the Lithuanian Tatars are judged by the same law as the nobility.
- That what happened be forgotten.
- That they should not be under the rule of the lords of the crown hetmans, but only under the rule of the king of his mercy and have their own hetman, chosen by the Cossacks.
Explanation:During the national liberation war, B. Khmelnytsky formed alliances and sent embassies to most neighboring (and not only) countries, such as the Principality of Moldova, Transylvania, the Ottoman Empire, Sweden, which at various stages met the interests of the Cossack state. The Pereyaslav council decided on an alliance with Moscow, but about 200 people were present at this council and there were not a few colonels who did not support this union, in particular, I. Bohun. Regarding the oath of Ukrainians to the Moscow tsar, there is a well-known letter from the Chernobyl archpriest, which contains the words "... I see bad, because Khmelnytsky betrayed us all to the Moscow tsar ... This and other letters of contemporaries "... he (Khmelnytsky) himself took the oath with his army and severely led the city of Kyiv under threat of sword punishment to what they swore, only the clergy did not swear, and all these cities and towns swore ..." or ". ..there was shouting and crying when the burghers were driven to the oath ... " and so on.
Explanation:The Cossacks did not call themselves Russian Orthodox people. In their appeals, the Cossacks wrote about Ukraine, Ukrainian lands, Russian lands, letters signed on behalf of the "troops of his royal grace Zaporozhye", later from the hetman "Zaporozhian troops". During the Khmelnytsky period, the terms "Russia" and "Ukraine" became synonymous. The representative state of this country was the Cossacks. On the maps of that time, the name Ukraine was often written with the specification "land of the Cossacks". Ukraine was the unofficial name of the country of hetmans.
Explanation:In this thesis, the author does not mention that in 1656 the Russian state and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth concluded the Vilnius Armistice. Plenipotentiaries of the Ukrainian Cossack state were not allowed to enter the negotiating table. This armistice contradicted the Pereyaslav agreements of 1654, which guaranteed Ukraine, first of all, military assistance from Russia. After Russia broke its promises, Khmelnytsky set out to find new, more reliable allies to form a new anti-Polish coalition. The result of this search was the creation of a powerful alliance of Ukraine, Transylvania, Sweden and Brandenburg. Yes, the war was liberating, but Russia was not an ally of Ukraine and tried to seize Ukrainian territory.
Explanation:At that time there was no Russian state. The Andrusiv Armistice is an agreement between the Moscow Empire and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth to end the war for the right to own Ukraine. For the Hetmanate (Ukraine), the Andrusiv Armistice became fatal and finally divided Ukraine into the Right Bank and the Left Bank. The "Andrusiv Armistice" was concluded in violation of the Ukrainian-Moscow treaties signed by the tsarist government with Hetmans B. Khmelnytsky, Y. Khmelnytsky and I. Bryukhovetsky. In accordance with the terms of the treaty, the right-bank part of Ukraine passed under the rule of the Commonwealth, and the left-bank - under the rule of the Moscow tsar. The understanding of Muscovy and Poland due to the division of the territory of the Cossack state led to the growth of political influence in Ukrainian society of the Cossack officers, who relied on the support of the Ottoman Empire and the Crimean Khanate. "Eternal Peace" really consolidated the provisions of the "Andrusiv Armistice". According to historian Mykhailo Kirsenko, this peace somewhat changed the status of Zaporizhia, the Zaporizhzhya Sich and the liberties of the Zaporizhzhya Army. If before they were something like a condominium for the Andrusiv Armistice, that is, dependent on both Moscow and Warsaw, respectively, the Cossacks were able to decide each time under whom it benefits, this is a classic case of feudal double loyalty or double vassality, when vassal can choose between two suzerains, it was now clearly established that Zaporozhye depends on Moscow. During the signing of the Andrusiv Armistice and the Eternal Peace, Ukrainians were not asked if they wanted to be under the rule of the Moscow Empire. The goal of the liberation struggle was to gain their national independence. The question of religion was only one small aspect of this period, but there was no question of reunification with the entire Orthodox Russian people. Ukraine became a bargaining chip between the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Moscow Empire.
Explanation:The question of the origin of the name Ukraine as a suburb of Russia is actively raised by Russian historical propaganda. The purpose of this narrative is to discredit Ukraine and everything Ukrainian, to instill a complex of inferiority. The first written mention of the name "Ukraine" is recorded in the Ipat list of "Tales of bygone years" in 1187. The chronicler tells about the death of Prince Volodymyr Hlibovych of Pereyaslav: "And all the people of Pereyaslav cried for him ... After him, Ukraine made a lot of effort." Historian Yaroslav Hrytsak notes, “Can the outskirts yearn for something? No. It's about the state."Researchers understood Ukraine differently for the first time in the Ipat list of Tales of Past Years: as the territory of Pereyaslav land bordering on Kyiv land; like the whole Pereyaslav land, called Ukraine because it bordered on the Polovtsian steppe; as primitive Russia (ie Kyiv, Pereyaslav and Chernihiv lands); like all of Kievan Rus. However, it is most probable that the chronicler named Ukraine the Pereyaslav land, but not because it bordered on the Polovtsian steppe, but because it was a separate principality. Two years later, in 1189, it was noted that Prince Rostislav came "to Ukraine of Galicia." It is interesting how Vladimir Putin unequivocally states about the names "Ukraine" and "Ukrainians" while dozens of research historians are still studying different approaches and mentions in written sources. According to historian Kirill Galushko, at first it “was the outskirts of Russia, ie the same Kyiv. People who look at the map of Ukraine today can calculate the distance from Kyiv to Pereyaslav and further to Sula. Since we had two days of troops from the center of the Russian land - Kyiv - to the border, these names coexisted. Especially if we talk about the XVI - early XVII century, in the later days, when the name "Russia" has not yet been abolished - Ukraine was the second name for this territory. It was also a frontier." Historian Natalia Yakovenko believes that Ukraine's issues are still "remains the biggest mystery for the historian". Historian Andriy Plakhonin notes that if we return to the first mention of Ukraine, it is a fortified line. That is, it is a military border. And this historical tradition was continued until the XVII century and beyond. From the very beginning it was a military border. And now this value remains: Ukraine is still Europe's military frontier against the invasion from the East. Read more here here and here
Explanation:It is unknown which archival documents are in question. Vladimir Putin takes a convenient interpretation of it and adds a false label to the names "Ukraine" and "Ukrainians". "Ukrainians" was not used to mean "border guards". And the name itself appeared later than the name Ukraine. According to historian Serhiy Grabovsky, the term "Ukrainians" was first recorded in the late 16th century in documents about the uprising of Hryhoriy Loboda and Severin Nalyvayko. The term "Ukrainians" in its ethnic sense is found in a letter of an unknown person to Ivan Vyhovsky in 1657. Historian Andriy Plakhonin explains that in the 19th and early 20th centuries, not all Ukrainians knew that they were Ukrainians, and used other words for their names. But this is typical of many European nations. We are not unique here. Historian Kyrylo Halushko remarks: : "There was the Sloboda-Ukrainian province, where the descendants of the Cossack officers lived. They distinguished themselves from the former Hetmanate, saying that the Little Russians lived there, and that we were Ukrainians in our Ukrainian suburban regiments. The first university in the sub-Russian lands, when the Kyiv-Mohyla Academy was abolished, was Kharkiv University - 1805. He united the local elite, who considered themselves Ukrainians. Accordingly, when the University of Kyiv is founded in 1834 and some teachers and intellectuals move from Kharkiv to Kyiv, they will bring with them their interpretation of Ukraine. It will meet with the Right-Bank Ukraine in the Polish sense, and we will begin to form a certain general consensus - both Ukraine and Ukraine. Little Russia is already such an imperial complex of inferiority, and Ukraine is a Cossack tradition. It was in the middle of the 19th century that this name began to spread.".
Explanation:To strengthen its position, in 1685 the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth restored the right-bank Cossacks, with all the rights and freedoms, which contributed to the settlement of these lands by people from the Left Bank, other parts of the Right Bank and Galicia. In fact, this part of the Right Bank lived separately from the king and became the basis for further Cossack liberation struggle. The Cossacks sought support in Russia in the hope of uniting the Ukrainian lands into one state. According to the King's Universal (1684) and the Sejm Constitution (1685), the Cossacks were allowed to inhabit the lands between the Tyasmin, Tikich and the territory of Kyiv Polissya - this was the territory of the former Cossack regiments. The process of settling these lands and creating regiments was taken under the control of the old honored Cossacks. S. Paliy and his associates (Colonels Iskra, Samus, Abazin) managed to combine traditional and new methods, which ensured success in their economic and political activities. Unlike their predecessors, who relied, as a rule, on a military, adventurous element, they preferred a settled, agricultural population. Declared benefits attracted residents of the Left Bank, migrants from other parts of the Right Bank, Galicia, people from Belarus and Moldova. Paliy and his associates considered the territory occupied by the Cossack regiments (with centers in Bratslav, Nemyriv, Korsun, Fastiv, Boguslav) to be a separate political union, independent of the royal administration. Already in May 1688, the Kyiv gentry in the instructions to the Sejm emphasized the desire of the Cossacks to establish a border on the river Sluch (traditional border of the Ukrainian state) in Volhynia and the river Ushu in the Lithuanian principality. During the 90's there was a steady process of revival of the statehood of Cossack Ukraine. Read more...
Explanation:Mazepa was the hetman on the Left Bank during this period. It was he who contributed to the economic and cultural development of Ukrainian lands. The alliance with Muscovy lasted so far, Mazepa did not see that Peter I would not support a separate Ukrainian state.
Explanation:These were not voluntary relocations. From history we know of at least two mass "thefts of peasants" from the Right Bank to the Left Bank Ukraine. The first took place in the spring of 1679. It was carried out by order of the Moscow government by the left-bank Cossack army to prevent Hetman Yuri Khmelnytsky from establishing himself on the Right Bank. The second took place in 1711-1712 pp. It was also not voluntary, but carried out on the instructions of Peter I. Little is known about these events, they have been little studied before. In recent years, right-bank peasants have actually lived in a separate Cossack state within the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, participated in the liberation struggle and supported their hetmans and the struggle for independence. And this posed a threat to Muscovy. According to historian Mykola Krykun, the tsar's decree, according to which the detachment was carried out, provided for the forced eviction of only the Cossacks, and gave the majority of the civilian population the right to choose: to stay or relocate. However, the execution of the decree resulted in the forced transfer of non-Cossacks to the Left Bank. Moscow officials categorically forbade them to return to their native places. However, as early as 1712, the return to the Right Bank began, which became more and more widespread every year. Read more...
Explanation:During the Great Northern War - a competition between Sweden and Muscovy for hegemony in Northeastern Europe - Ukrainians really had no choice but to fight with Russian officers on the Russian side. For this they received not a reward, but oppression and insults from Moscow officers. At first, the Cossacks looked at Mazepa's action with great distrust, and only later the brutal behavior of the Moscow administration in southern Ukraine, the terror of the Moscow army in the Hetmanate, made a decisive change in the mood of Zaporizhzhia.The entire Ukrainian government, most of the influential colonels, and many other members of the aristocracy were in the Swedish camp. It is about 40 thousand Cossacks. There were 11 large cities, 126 towns and almost 1,800 villages in the Hetmanate. The total percentage of settlements where the inhabitants "swore allegiance" to the king is less than 1%; among cities and towns - 10%. The civilian population was harassed by the Moscow army with its violence and looting.
Explanation:This is a method of distorting true information. Only those loyal to the tsar succeeded. The Cossack sergeant, who did not agree with the Russian version of the Pereyaslav agreements, was removed and eventually physically destroyed. For a long time in the Moscow Empire, in principle, there were no higher educational institutions of the Western level, so it is not surprising that graduates of Kyiv-Mohyla played a significant role in the formation of the church, and in general, science. The first university in Russia appeared only in 1687, during the reign of Peter I, and and was founded by Simeon Polotsky, in fact, a graduate of the KMA (then still a college)
Explanation:The population of the Hetmanate wanted a separate state, which was gradually destroyed by Muscovy. People did not dream of creating a "great common country". During the liberation war, the Hetmanate gained autonomy with fairly broad rights within the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and after the Pereyaslav Treaty, rights were only invaded by the Moscow tsars. Thus, during the hetmanship of Ivan Mazepa, initially, when Peter I was young, thanks to Peter's loyalty to the hetman, the rights of the Hetmanate for a short period were expanded. As Russian historian Tatiana Tairova-Yakovleva said in an interview, "at the initial stage, Peter I had great respect for Mazepa, and Mazepa hoped that Peter would change the relationship between the Ukrainian hetmanate and the Moscow state for the better." In principle, in the beginning it was so - the autonomy and changes in the policy of the Moscow state on education, the involvement of the Ukrainian clergy, the creation of a more European policy. Of course, Mazepa took an active part in these changes after that."But after the Great Northern War, the situation changed dramatically and autonomous rights were ruthlessly curtailed. This policy was continued by Catherine II.
Explanation:People also participated in the development of the United States, Canada and South America. In the middle of the XIX century. the first wave of emigration begins, which was caused by both agrarian overpopulation and economic and political oppression of Ukrainians. The goal of the Russian Empire was not just to populate the empty lands of the Far East, but also to assimilate Ukrainians. Assimilation was one of the additional plans to create "Shock Builds" and "Raise of Tselina" already in Soviet times, to which young people were sent as voluntary (promoting the "romance of the taiga") or by distribution, after graduation or college. As a result, for example, 2 million people came to Kazakhstan during 1954-1962, which reduced the share of Kazakhs to 30% of the population and led to the closure of Kazakh schools and the change of media language from Kazakh to Russian.
Explanation:This was not the exclusive privilege of Ukrainians. In addition, nationality was more of a hindrance than a help, because for "Ukrainianness" one could lose one's position, and in Stalin's time, one could lose one's head. Nationality did not determine career advancement. This was determined solely by the views and proper behavior in accordance with the line of the CPSU.
Explanation:Khrushchev, a native of the Kursk province, repressed 167,565 people as first secretary in 1937-1939 in Ukraine. Brezhnev's father was Russian and considered himself Russian, (LI Brezhnev. Memoirs: life on a factory whistle. Publishing House of Polit. Lit-ry, M., 1981. P. 7.) so we can conclude that for Ukraine was only a career step for both of these party functionaries.
Explanation:Novorossiya is a narrative of Russian propaganda that has been actively implemented since 2014. It was then that Putin said that the Bolsheviks allegedly illegally handed over South and East Ukraine to the Ukrainian SSR in the 1920s, and that the local population was ethnic Russians who needed immediate protection. The term "Novorossiya" appeared when the imperial authorities decided to rename the lands of the Zaporozhian Sich, and the inhabitants of southern and eastern Ukraine never thought they lived in Novorossiya. The imperial administration established new cities in the south of Ukraine, but they were inhabited mainly by Ukrainians, not Russians, such as Katerynoslav (now the Dnieper), which was founded in 1777 on the site of Cossack settlements. Novorossiysk province was created for the second time and liquidated 6 years later. The term "Novorossiya" was then used exclusively for political purposes.According to historian Yaroslav Hrytsak, the Russian narrative likes to repeat that Novorossia, for unknown reasons, became Southern Ukraine in the twentieth century. However, at the time of the formation of the Novorossiysk province, Ukrainians lived in those areas, and it was they who took an active part in the colonization and development of southern Ukraine. After the liquidation of the Crimean Khanate and its annexation by the Russian Empire, this territory became ethnically Ukrainian. Because it was colonized by the peasantry, and the peasantry was the majority there. Historian Oleg Gava provides statistics on the census for different periods of the tsarist empire. According to the results of the first revision (census) in the Russian Empire, 85% of the inhabitants of the so-called "New Russia" were Ukrainians. The share of Ukrainians in Kherson and Ekaterinoslav provinces was 74%. And there were only 3% of "Great Russians" in the Kherson province (including Odessa). The term "Novorossiya" was revived by Putin, covering the seizure of Ukrainian territories in 2014. Read more... here and here
Explanation:There was no voluntary integration. All agreements and alliances were political attempts by Ukrainians to find allies in the struggle for independence that Russia used to occupy Ukraine. At that time, the Polish Empire, together with the political alliance with the Russian Empire, actively enforced serfdom much more severely than in Poland. Muscovy also occupied the Kyivan metropolitanate, although the faith was Orthodox, but the approaches and traditions differed, as did the language. Muscovites usually called the language of documents from Ukrainian lands "Lithuanian" or "Belarusian" only since the time of Peter I "Little Russia". Historian Michael Moser explains that during the 16th century Ukrainian and Belarusian lands came under the influence of the Reformation, which gave a huge impetus to the development of Ukrainian culture in general and the Ukrainian language in particular. In 1569, as a result of the Lublin Union, almost all Ukrainian lands became part of the Polish part of the newly created Commonwealth. At that time, the Polish language had an increasingly strong influence on Ukrainian (and Belarusian), in particular on the literary "Russian language", which during the XVI century. emerged on the basis of traditional business language. Around 1570 and 1670, this "Russian language" was often virtually identical to the Polish language in terms of vocabulary and syntax, but phonetics and word formation were based on "Russian" grounds, and Cyrillic emphasized this "Russianness" and was its expressive symbol. During the Middle Ukrainian period, in the territories where the Cossacks settled (from Dnieper Ukraine to Slobidska Ukraine and Kuban), extremely homogeneous south-eastern dialects of the Ukrainian language were formed as new mixed dialects. Ukrainian is much closer to Polish and Belarusian than to Russian. The thesis of the similarity of languages is well received, because people who lived in the USSR have a good understanding of Russian, which was the main language. However, Ukrainians who have long emigrated to Canada and the United States do not know Russian and do not understand it. And Russians from the countryside, who have no experience of communicating with Ukrainians, also do not understand Ukrainian. Ukrainian is much closer to Polish and Belarusian than to Russian. Read more here here Refutation of Muscovite myths about the Pereyaslav agreement Watch a video of a Ukrainian multilingual child trying to guess the meaning of Russian words.
Explanation:There was never a single common language in the days of Kievan Rus. The language situation was heterogeneous, as the territory was large, inhabited by various tribes of Slavic origin, and the ties between them were weak. Literary language is a vernacular, only coded, ie reduced to one written standard and recorded in dictionaries and grammars. Calling Ukrainian artists Russian heritage is an example of a typical cultural appropriation, ie appropriation of the achievements of another culture, which is most common among colonized peoples. There is no Little Russian people, there are Ukrainians. The very name "Little Russians" is an echo of colonialism. Mykola Gogol's father was a member of a secret society whose goal was to achieve Ukraine's independence. Gogol's romantic works (the collection "Evenings on a Farm Near Dykanka") have a Ukrainian folklore basis and testify to knowledge and love for culture, while St. Petersburg stories are realistic and pessimistic. Gogol wrote in Russian, because writing in Ukrainian was problematic. The existence of Ukrainian as a separate language was denied, and the language itself was pushed to the margins by the empire, its existence was reduced to the language of the peasantry, a language exclusively for domestic use. The amount of cultural oppression against Ukrainians is impressive. As for self-identification, it is always possible to determine to which culture the author belongs, referring to his own words. For example, Gogol considered Ukrainian his native language, and evidence of this is in his correspondence with a Ukrainian friend, the rector of Kyiv University Mykhailo Maksymovych. In a letter dated April 20, 1834, Gogol analyzed the functioning of some of the words used by Maksimovich in Russian and Ukrainian. Gogol calls the second of them "our language". Russian became the written language in Ukraine after the decree of Peter I in 1720, according to which all books in Ukraine were to be published in Russian. Russia is trying to appropriate Ukraine's heritage and call it its own.
Explanation:The South-Western Territories have always been inhabited mainly by Ukrainians. The Novorossiya project is an artificial name coined by Muscovy for the territory where Cossack settlements and the Zaporizhzhya Sich used to be. However, the area was colonized mainly by Ukrainians, and despite the diverse ethnic composition of the regions, Ukrainians made up the bulk of the region's population, at least 70% at various times. Administrative reform, which was introduced in the Russian Empire in the early XIX century. was associated with the government's program of foreign preferential colonization - in the Cossack-Tatar steppe were invited Germans, Greeks, Bulgarians and other peoples. As a result, the share of Ukrainians in southern Ukraine decreased, but by the end of the empire, Ukrainians made up more than 70% of the region's population with its own traditions and customs.
Explanation:The Valuev Circular and the Ems Decree effectively eliminated the Ukrainian language from book printing, teaching at universities and its use in other fields, which dealt a significant blow to the development of Ukrainian culture. These decisions were made to destroy everything Ukrainian. After the death of Alexander II, his successor made some concessions to book printing, but at the same time categorically banned the Ukrainian theater. *Note. We analyzed Putin's article, which was published on the Kremlin's website on July 12. It contains errors, in particular, the incorrect date of the Ems decree. In fact, the act was signed in 1876.
Пояснення:The Ems decree forbade the publication in Ukrainian of original and translated works (even lyrics), imported Ukrainian books and brochures printed abroad, staged Ukrainian plays, and gave concerts of Ukrainian songs and recitations. The development of Ukrainian identity took place in spite of all oppression by the Russian authorities. The term "Little Russians" is a favorite term of Russian propagandists, which they still continue to manipulate. In the historical context, it was created by the Russian ruling elite at the time, and was actively planted with the aim of destroying Ukrainian self-identity.
Explanation:In the nineteenth century, the process of national revival encompassed virtually all European nations that did not have their own statehood at the time. The immediate task of several generations of Ukrainian political and cultural figures of the nineteenth century was the collection of cultural heritage, the creation of the Ukrainian literary language, rethinking the history of Ukraine. According to historian Natalia Romanyshyn, initially the Ukrainian national revival was led by the Ukrainian nobility, who came from the Cossack elders. Ukraine and Zaporozhye.This memory was manifested on two levels: 1) at the level of the common people.Cossack traditions continued to be preserved among the enslaved peasantry, for whom the mention of the Cossacks was primarily a memory of the rebellious Zaporozhian Sich, with its special orders and intolerance of social, national and religious oppression; 2) at the level of the new Ukrainian nobility. Descendants of the Cossack officers connected the glorious past of Ukraine with the memory of the Cossack state - the Hetmanate. Therefore, Putin's words about the lack of a historical basis are a complete lie. "The History of the Russians", deserves special attention, the main idea of which was to restore Ukraine's autonomous rights when it joined the Russian state in 1654. Without questioning Ukraine's membership in Russia, the author of the treatise called for redress for the injustices caused to Ukrainians by Russians. This reflected the uniqueness of the worldview of the autonomists: defending the historical rights of Ukraine and seeking to restore them, they did not demand the separation of Ukraine from the Russian Empire. Vladimir Putin is silent about this, as well as about a number of other important stages. During the period of 1830-1860, when there was an active and stubborn struggle between Russia and Poland for possession of Ukrainian territory between the Western Bug and the Dnieper. Russian authorities have tried to use Ukrainian figures to fight Polish influence. This was one of the "windows" used by the Ukrainian elite. The most clear cultural and political orientation of the Ukrainian movement in the mid-nineteenth century. formulated in the ideology of the "Cyril and Methodius Society". "The political program of the Society "Book of the Existence of the Ukrainian people" reflects and evaluates the main events of history from ancient times to the middle of the XIX century. It deals with the liberation and unification of the Slavic peoples, the overthrow of autocratic despotism and colonial oppression of the Slavs by the Russian, Austrian and Turkish empires, the abolition of serfdom, national and cultural revival, and the return of democratic rights to the Slavic peoples. Cyril and Methodius worked out the issues of the future system of Ukraine, its entry into the Slavic federation as an equal partner. The Slavic federation has identified political variants of the republican state of the United States, where a democratic system of government prevails and there are legal guarantees, " explains historian Natalia Romanyshyn. The Russian authorities repressed the members of the Cyril and Methodius Society. Everything connected with the historical memory and the awareness of Ukrainians of the importance of their state was suppressed as much as possible by the Russian Empire. This is especially true of Ukrainian figures, as well as the introduction of bans contained in the Valuev Circular and the Ems Decree.
Explanation:At the end of the 19th century, the territories of modern Ukraine belonged to other states, and the population was quite heterogeneous. Each government acted according to its goals, and the support of other countries was and is important for the creation of Ukrainian statehood. Many Ukrainians considered Poland and Russia their enemies. That is, from the point of view of the Austro-Hungarian authorities, they could have common interests and be mutually beneficial As for the Polish national movement, it rather developed in opposition to the policies of St. Petersburg, Vienna and Berlin to destroy Polish statehood. Therefore, the author should be reminded of how in the nineteenth century Russia "took care" of the nationality of its "empire". Because the suppression of the Polish national movement by the Russian government in the Right Bank of Ukraine did not differ in the methods of struggle against Ukrainians who began to realize their own national identity: closing schools, banning the use of language, etc.Read more here This is very "modestly" said to Muscovite sentiments in Galicia, because in fact Russia organized and financed a real separatist movement in Austria-Hungary. Representatives of this movement used the Russian tricolor and wrote an "appeal" to Russia about salvation. For them, it ended in funding cuts, deep disappointment, or even tragic death in concentration camps.
Explanation:With the outbreak of World War I, the Main Ukrainian Rada raised the question of organizing a separate Ukrainian formation in the Austrian army. The Austrian government allowed only 2,500 volunteers, although 28,000. The Ukrainian Sich Rifle Legion knew its mortal enemy was this is Muscovy, because "... one of the main reasons for the war for Russia was the desire to capture Galicia and destroy the center of the Ukrainian national movement, and to fulfill its historic task" "unification under the scepter of the Russian king of all branches of the Russian people." "Every now and then all Russian nationalists spoke; they were especially interested in Galicia, because it was a pain in their eyes, because in a foreign country they could not ban the Ukrainian word." Read more... Ukrainian Sich shooters in Transcarpathia The shooters who created the Western Ukrainian People's Republic were reconstructed in Lviv. Photo November 3, 2012 Humanitarian and educational activities of the Ukrainian Sich Riflemen in Volhynia (1916 - early 1918) Colonel Vasyl Vyshivany Ukraine celebrates 125th anniversary of Austrian Archduke, Ukrainian Vasyl Vyshivany
Explanation:For some reason, the author of the article is silent about the fact that in 1914, when the Russian army entered Lviv, Count Alexei Bobrinsky said that Galicia and Bukovina are ancient parts of Greater Russia, where the population has always been Russian, and therefore he will impose Russian and Russian orders. According to his instructions, all Ukrainian and Polish educational institutions were closed, the use of the Ukrainian language in state institutions and churches was prohibited, and Ukrainian books were not allowed to be sold. During September-December 1914 in Lviv, 1,200 arrests, 1,000 searches, and 578 people were deported to Siberia.Greek Catholic dioceses were liquidated, Metropolitan A. Sheptytsky and Rector of the Theological Seminary Fr. J. Bos were arrested and sent to the monastery prison in Suzdal. Russian gymnasiums were opened in Lviv and Stanislav. , who allegedly sympathized with the Russians, began terror against Ukrainians. According to M. Hrushevsky: "" They allegedly started with Muscovites , but then began to take everyone indiscriminately, arguing in the words of a high-ranking official that there is as much difference between a Muscovite and a Ukrainian as there is between a Jew and an Israeli. " They began arresting and executing without trial, or sending Russophiles to concentration camps, and later Ukrainians, who made up the majority in the concentration camp. "According to Austrian data, 14,000 people passed through the Thalerhof concentration camp during its existence from 1914 to 1917. Most of the prisoners of the Russian army and Muscovites were held here, while the Ukrainians were sent to the Terezin, Schwatz, Kufstein, Gmünd, and Gnaw camps. In total, more than 60,000 people were serving their sentences. It is difficult to say how many of them survived and how many were executed. It is known that almost everyone who identified himself as a Ruthenian was repressed. Read more here
Explanation:Thus, the German, Austro-Hungarian, Russian and Ottoman empires - collapsed, the First World War grew into a civil war and was throughout the Russian Empire, there was foreign intervention. However, it is not mentioned that the spread of the national liberation movement and attempts to create a state on the territory of modern Ukraine were suppressed by both the Russian Empire and Bolshevik Russia. This was more important for the history of Ukraine.
Explanation:The manipulation carried out by Russian propagandists is evident from the mention of the Third Universal. In fact, during 1917 - early 1918 the Central Council gradually expanded and strengthened the status of Ukrainian lands - from autonomy to federation and full independence. Relations with Russia were planned. However, the realities changed - the Bolshevik coup took place in Petrograd and the Provisional Government ceased to hold power. on the way to independence, in particular, officially proclaimed the Ukrainian People's Republic. It should be understood that the Bolshevik coup was perceived as a temporary phenomenon that will be overcome in some time. organizations of the state apparatus made some mistakes, but they could be corrected. No one expected that the Russian Bolshevik government would not even adjust its internal life, but would immediately launch a military aggression against Ukraine. Therefore, the decision of the Central Council on peaceful coexistence with Russia was even worse, even fatal. This approach has demoralized the Ukrainian army and its unwillingness to resist aggression. Brest-Lithuania Peace Treaty of January 27 (February 9) 1918 - peace agreement between the Ukrainian People's Republic on the one hand and Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey and Bulgaria on the other, signed Brest (Brest-Lithuania); the first peace treaty in the First World War of 1914-1918. As for the status of the Ukrainian delegation at the negotiations in Brest-Litovsk, we have a classic example of lies on the part of Russian propaganda. The reality was different: the Bolsheviks, trying to gain the sympathy of the population, proclaimed the right to free self-determination of the peoples occupied by Russia. In view of this, the head of the Russian Bolshevik delegation, Lev Trotsky, was forced to recognize the authority of the UPR delegation as an independent state entity. The decision on Ukrainian independence, without any alliances with neighbors, was officially proclaimed the Fourth Universal, which was signed on January 9 (22), 1918. The Ukrainian People’s Republic has signed the Brest Peace Treaty as a full-fledged independent entity. The Treaty of Brest, signed on March 3, 1918 between the Central Powers and the RSFSR, obliged the latter to recognize the legitimacy of the Central Council and its People's Secretariat, stop political propaganda in the UPR, withdraw Soviet troops and sign a peace treaty.
Explanation:Another myth of Russian propaganda is that Ukraine lost its sovereignty after signing an agreement with the German bloc in 1918. On February 9, 1918, the first peace treaty since the beginning of the Great War (1914) was concluded - the Brest-Lithuania Peace Treaty.And it was concluded between the states of the German bloc (Central Powers) and the Ukrainian People's Republic. One month before the historic moment of signing the agreement, on January 12, the head of the Austro-Hungarian delegation, Father Cherin, on behalf of the Central Powers, recognized the sovereignty of the UPR despite the protests of the Bolsheviks. Germany and Austria-Hungary in 1918 were indeed in a difficult situation, in need of Ukrainian bread and raw materials. Under this agreement, Ukraine undertook to provide 60 million poods of bread, 2.75 million poods of meat, other agricultural products and industrial raw materials by July 31, 1918. That is, it actually became the breadbasket of the central states of Europe. On February 12, the Ukrainian People's Republic appealed to the German side to introduce troops with the help of which it hoped to solve internal problems. Vladimir Putin is silent that on February 9, 1918, the day of the signing of the peace treaty, Kyiv was captured by the Bolsheviks, mass murders and looting were committed. The massacre of Kyiv was commanded by M. Muravyov and, according to memoirs, a total of up to 5,000 people were tortured in a few days. It was under such conditions that the UPR government had to agree to the supply of provisions to the Central Powers and ask the Central Powers to attack the Bolsheviks. During its existence in 1918-1920, independent Ukraine achieved international recognition, became a truly functioning subject of international law - signed intergovernmental agreements, participated in international conferences, and established bilateral diplomatic and consular relations with more than 20 countries. And most importantly, the process of state-building in Ukraine was interrupted not as a result of internal cataclysms, but as a result of external aggression by Russia.
Explanation:Ukraine's external governance is another horror story and myth of Russian propaganda. Of course, like modern Ukraine, the UPR had no "external governance." At the end of April 1918, with the assistance of German troops, a coup d'etat took place, as a result of which P. Skoropadsky came to power in the country. According to historian Kirill Galushko, the prospects for the hetman's regime, if support for Germany continued, were. This is a sufficiently high-quality state-building, civilized legal culture, overcoming the consequences of the first outbreak of Bolshevism that took place in Ukraine. That is why, when conservative forces united around Pavel Skoropadsky and elected him Hetman of the Ukrainian state in April 1918, the countries of the German bloc supported the Hetman's coup. Skoropadsky proclaimed the Ukrainian state instead of the UPR under a German protectorate - the truth provided to confirm the manipulation. After all, during Pavlo Skoropadsky's hetmanship, which lasted less than eight months, the Academy of Sciences, two Ukrainian universities, 150 Ukrainian gymnasiums were founded, several Ukrainian banks and joint-stock companies were opened, the National Archive, the National Library were formed, the Ukrainian Drama and Opera Theater and the Ukrainian state chapel, State Symphony Orchestra, etc. Hetman Pavlo Skoropadsky turned out to be one of the greatest statesmen among the leaders of Ukraine at that time. According to the philosopher Peter Kralyuk, it was pro-Russian sympathies that destroyed the hetman. In 1918 he issued a letter "To all Ukrainian citizens", which spoke of the federation of the Ukrainian state with non-Bolshevik Russia. This led to an uprising of pro-Ukrainian forces, as a result of which Skoropadsky abdicated a month later.
Explanation:Hetman Pavlo Skoropadsky, as the head of the Ukrainian state ((that's what it was called in 1918 during his rule), belonged to the autonomists in his opinion, so he did not" take a different course. В In the "Letter of the Hetman of All Ukraine to all Ukrainian citizens and Cossacks" was indeed the following thesis: "She (Ukraine) should be the first to speak in the formation of the All-Russian Federation, whose ultimate goal will be the restoration of Greater Russia." But it is not necessary to take the phrase out of the historical context. After the Armistice of Compiègne on November 11, 1918, which marked the end of the First World War, the status of German forces changed radically. And with the help of the Germans, Hetman Skoropadsky came to power. He needed to enlist the support of new allies - the victors, the Entente. But they did not recognize an independent Ukrainian state. Therefore, according to historian Vladlen Marayev, in order to be a full-fledged player in the political arena, Pavlo Skoropadsky issued a letter announcing his intentions to unite all anti-Bolshevik forces to create a federal Russian state in which the Ukrainian state would be one of its founders.
Explanation:In October, Ukrainian deputies from both chambers of the Austrian parliament, the Galician and Bukovinian regional parliaments, and delegates from all Ukrainian political parties gathered in Lviv. Bishops of the Greek Catholic Church and student envoys also attended the congress. In total, the formed ZUNR covered about 70 thousand square kilometers of territory with a population of 6 million (including 71% Ukrainians, 14% Poles, 13% Jews, 2% Hungarians, Romanians and others. By religion, the division was as follows: 62 % - Greek Catholics, 18 - Roman Catholics, 13 - Jews, 6 - Orthodox. In January, Galicia and the Dnieper region, separated for centuries, merged into one state. But Poland did not give up the struggle for Galicia, and in November these lands came under its rule. In 1923, the Entente recognized the annexation of the region by Poland.
Explanation:Manipulation on a topic that is the subject of discussion among historians. According to historian Vitaly Skalsky, 21 on April 21, 1920 in Warsaw, Polish Foreign Minister Jan Dombski and UPR Foreign Minister Andriy Livytsky signed a secret political convention. It soon became popular. Historically, the Warsaw Pact or the Pilsudski-Petliura Union, but Putin does not call these conventions the "Warsaw Pact" - only "secret conventions", although in historical sources we find mostly the "Warsaw Pact". territorial concessions, but let's consider why. Vitaliy Skalsky writes: "According to the agreement, the Polish government recognized the Directory of the Independent Ukrainian People's Republic as the supreme authority of the Ukrainian People's Republic." The border between Poland and Ukraine was established with the remark that the future status of Rivne, Dubno and parts of Kremenets counties will be determined additionally. Three days later, on April 24, the Military Convention was signed, which provided for a joint Polish-Ukrainian anti-Bolshevik military action. Both agreements were secret, with the exception of paragraph 1 of the political convention. " That is, such concessions were needed to oppose the Bolsheviks. According to Vladislav Verstyuk, the Warsaw Pact became a zone of "special irritation of Ukrainian historiography", as it provided for territorial concessions of the Ukrainian side in exchange for international recognition of the UPR and military assistance in the war against the Bolsheviks. For many years, researchers have debated the feasibility and morality of such a step Petliura. In fact, this is what Putin is trying to manipulate. Petliura himself later wrote: "Only an dishonest demagogue can afford to say that" Petliura sold "Galicia, Volhynia, etc. Petliura, to tell the truth, is responsible for the historical "sins" and "flaws of Ukrainian disorganization, low culture and adverse circumstances in the life of the Ukrainian nation." Instead, in modern historiography, the Pilsudski-Petliura union has received cautiously optimistic assessments. Yaroslav Hrytsak writes that Petliura sacrificed the idea of the unification of the Ukrainian lands for the sake of the idea of independence. Contrary to the aspirations of the leaders of the Central Rada and Skoropadsky to include ethnic lands in the Ukrainian state as much as possible, he competed for what could really be achieved in these conditions "" (Yaroslav Hrytsak, Essay on Ukrainian History: Kyiv 1996, p. 107.) Putin uses the word "Petliurists", popular in Russian and Soviet propaganda.Instead, it is the Army of the Ukrainian People's Republic. Putin is silent about the fact that on October 18, when the armistice begins (Putin talks about it), Polish Supreme Commander-in-Chief Marshal Józef Pilsudski addressed a farewell letter to Ukrainian troops, in which he addressed them as "wonderful troops of the UPR". According to historian Andriy Rukkas, UPR troops (Putin speaks of them as "remnants of Petliur's troops") had no choice but to end up on Polish territory and surrender their weapons, or to fall under the reds' grindstones.
Explanation:The UPR has never been a quasi-state entity. This is another myth of Russian propaganda. Russia could not imagine itself without all the republics that began the struggle for independence during the collapse of the Russian Empire. In particular, the Central Council was established in Ukraine.This Council proclaimed the creation of the UPR as part of federal Russia, which later led to the Russian attack and the beginning of the Russian-Ukrainian war, because Russia did not want to let Ukraine out of its power. Historian Andriy Rukkas explains that the Ukrainian state has existed on its land for almost 4 years, which is a good result in a total war. At the peak of its power at the end of 1918, the Ukrainian state controlled a large territory, the borders of which in the northwest, north and east significantly exceeded the current borders of modern Ukraine. Moreover, these borders were recognized by a number of European states through the signing of international treaties: the RSFSR (Bolshevik Government of the Russian Federation), the German Empire, the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary, the Kingdom of Bulgaria, the Ottoman Empire. Negotiations were underway to establish a federation with the Kuban. Crimea was formally an autonomy. Kyiv's power did not extend to Romanian-occupied Bessarabia and the German-occupied Crimea, which, albeit formally, was still an autonomous entity within Ukraine. During its existence, independent Ukraine has achieved international recognition, become a truly functioning subject of international law - signed intergovernmental agreements, participated in international conferences, and established bilateral diplomatic and consular relations with more than 20 countries. And most importantly, the process of state-building in Ukraine was interrupted not as a result of internal cataclysms, but as a result of external aggression by Russia. It was only possible to force Russia to give up its territories. Thus, after the intensification of hostilities in the Four Alliance on March 3, 1918 in Brest-Litovsk, Soviet Russia was forced to conclude a separate peace treaty with them, pledging to recognize the independence of Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia, Poland, Ukraine and Finland. However, in the autumn, Russia unilaterally annulled the agreement and conquered Ukraine.
Explanation:After the establishment of the Central Council in Kyiv, the Provisional Government in Petrograd tried to limit its influence to five provinces (Kyiv, Podil, Volyn, Chernihiv, Poltava). After the overthrow of the Provisional Government on October 31, 1917, the Central Council raised question "on the unification of Ukrainian lands" anddopted a resolution on: о " Extending in full the power of the General Secretariat to all demarcated lands of Ukraine, where the majority of the population is Ukrainian ..." В In the Third Universal of the Central Rada (November 7, 1917) Kharkiv and Katerynoslav regions were already considered Ukrainian territory. ПAfter the proclamation of the independence of the Ukrainian People's Republic, the Bolsheviks tried to prevent the spread of Ukrainian power to Donbass and Kryvbas. At the same time, the influence of local councils is growing. The UPR, as a bourgeois state, does not suit the Bolsheviks. On November 17, 1917, at the plenum of the regional committee of the Soviets of the Donetsk and Kryvyi Rih basins, Fedor Sergeyev (Artem") proposed "" "" to create an independent autonomous Donetsk region independent of the Kiev center ... "". On December 11-12, 1917, the All-Ukrainian Congress of Soviets in Kharkiv declared the overthrow of the Central Rada, the proclamation of Ukraine as the Republic of Soviets, and the establishment of federal ties with Soviet Russia. However, the idea of separating industrialized regions from Ukraine is not disappearing. On February 9-12, 1918, the Fourth Regional Congress of Soviets of Workers 'and Soldiers' Deputies supported the creation of the Donetsk-Kryvyi Rih Republic, and on February 14, 1918, the Council of People's Commissars of the Donetsk and Kryvyi Rih Basins was established under the chairmanship of F. Sergeyev. The regional committee obliges the People's Commissar to implement the decrees of the Council of People's Commissars of the Republic of Russia, and decides to consider the CEC of Soviets of Ukraine as a body parallel to the regional committee. At the same time, focusing on the state borders defined by the III and IV Universals of the Central Council, the Austro-German troops begin the occupation of Ukraine. The leadership of the Donetsk-Kryvyi Rih Republic ignores the calls of the People's Secretariat of Ukraine to unite all military forces to repel the invaders and tries to achieve recognition of autonomy by the People's Commissar of the RSFSR, but does not receive sanctions from Lenin to separate Donetsk-Kryvyi Rih region from Ukraine. In March 1918, the DKR ceased to exist. The formation of the republic independent of Ukraine was provoked mainly by the ambition of the organizers of the republic, their lack of understanding of the means and principles of state building. But Lenin's refusal to recognize the Donetsk-Kryvyi Rih Republic was caused by the need to ensure a united front against the German-Austrian troops, and not by the need for a national Ukrainian state in its Soviet version.
Explanation:First, the notion of the "Soviet Empire" did not exist in the historical context. It was the "Russian Empire." Secondly, in fact, the UPR government was the legitimate representative of Ukraine, as it was recognized internationally by the Brest Treaty of January 27, 1918, Warsaw Pact on April 21, 1920. The government of the Ukrainian SSR was in fact self-proclaimed and recognized only by the pressure of Soviet Russia. The Polish uprising in Lviv received support from the government of the newly formed Second Polish Commonwealth and escalated into an interstate war. which are now parts of Lithuania, Western Belarus, Volhynia and Galicia. These two Ukrainian regions, which were fighting for their statehood, were not part of either the Russian or the Soviet Empire before.Volyn and Galicia were recognized by Poland as a result of the signing in 1921 of the Peace of Riga with the Bolsheviks, as well as the signing of the Peace of Versailles, which defined the world order after the First World War. * It is the "Soviet Empire" written in the first version of Putin's article of July 12. The article was later amended.
Explanation:The character of the Polish, like the Russian regime and at all times, was not democratic. According to historian Igor Derevyany, the main features of the Polish regime were authoritarianism with the occupation peculiarities of government. Polish veterans were also relocated to Galicia, to whom 12% of all land was transferred in a few years. Deportations of Ukrainians were not carried out during this period, but in the 1930s the Polish National Democrats were in the mood to carry out such a plan. These intentions were reflected in a secret resolution of the Council of Ministers of March 1939on the deportation of Ukrainians from ethnic lands to western Poland. In the interwar years, Poland pursued an active policy of "polonization" of newly acquired lands - giving greater rights to Poles as a nationality and Polish culture, while persecuting Ukrainians and Ukrainian culture.
Explanation:And already during the Second World War the Volyn tragedy happened. Its causes are much deeper and lie not only in the period of interwar occupation of Ukraine by Poland. According to historian Bohdan Hudy, the whole history of Volhynia, starting with the partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, is the history of the formation of hatred towards Poles and Poland. In general, for decades this conflict was not national, it was rather ethno-social in nature - a conflict between Polish lords and Ukrainian peasants for land. Therefore, as the Polish historian Władysław Menżecki writes, the Ukrainian peasants were told about the destruction of the "lordly" world, which they did in part in 1917-1920. A special aspect concerns the actions of the Germans, who, implementing their plan for Ost, to create a separate entity in the western Ukrainian lands, where the representatives of the Reich, the so-called "Aryan race", would live. They forcibly took Poles to concentration camps, relocated Ukrainians to "liberated" territories, recruited Ukrainians to Polish administrations, and Poles to Ukrainian ones. And this further provoked a national conflict between Ukrainians and Poles. Vladimir Putin also conceals the influence of the Soviet government, which "added fuel" to the fire by attacking Poles under the guise of UPA units and recruiting Poles into the Soviet guerrilla ranks. One of the most massacres took place in the village. Pavlivka. Vasyl Levochko, a UPA centurion, led the action. The most interesting thing is that a year later Levochko appears in these areas in the uniform of the NKVD captain of the Soviet Border Service. A year later, in the vicinity of Hrubieszów, the singers killed him in an ambush as an enemy agent. As OUN activist Maria Savchyn (Marichka) recalls, there were many such "leftists" in the UPA.German documents also testify to the infiltration of the UPA by Soviet agents, saying that the UPAs did not even suspect that they were being led by the Soviets.
Explanation:Vladimir Putin omits one important point: Russian propaganda declares the date of the establishment of the Soviet Union on December 30, 1922. However, according to documents researched by historian Gennady Yefimenko, on this day the creation of the USSR was only declared, the union treaty was not implemented. therefore, the legal appearance of the "Union of Soviet Republics" was formalized only on July 6, 1923. It was then officially announced.. The UPR was defeated in the undeclared war with the RSFSR. The UPR ceased to exist at the end of November 1920 due to the final occupation of its territory by the Red Army. At the end of 1920, Russia had six armies in Ukraine with a total of more than a million bayonets. Together with the state security and police, they formed a powerful force in which no one could challenge the dictatorship of the RCP (B) -CP (B) U. However, the leaders of Lenin's party understood that it was impossible to maintain such a great republic by force alone. In December 1920, Lenin and Rakovsky (People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs of the USSR) signed an agreement on military and economic union of the two republics. The preamble to the Union Treaty emphasized that each of the contracting parties recognized the independence and sovereignty of the other. Although there was no question of any independence for Ukraine, except purely declarative. As well as the equality of republics in the USSR. Ukraine, as part of the USSR, formally had the right to self-determination until secession. But no mechanism and opportunities for this plan have been identified. There was only one way out. In order for Ukraine to be able to leave the USSR painlessly and without human losses, it was necessary to denounce the Soviet Union. According to historian Yaroslav Hrytsak, the formation of the USSR in general and the Ukrainian SSR in particular was an alliance between two forces - the Russian Bolsheviks in the center and the national movements on the outskirts. Neither of these forces was strong enough to establish sole control over the non-Russian periphery.
Explanation:The Soviet Union can exist only in the force field created by the dictatorship of the state party. According to historian Stanislav Kulchytsky, the anti-communist revolution in the USSR was based, like any other, on the reluctance of the lower classes to be satisfied with what they had. The Soviet political system, together with the command economy created under it, looked like an anachronism against the background of accelerated scientific, technical, and socioeconomic progress in the West. However, in contrast to previous social cataclysms, the leading force in the anti-communist revolution was the Communist Party-Soviet nomenklatura. This was explained not only by the fact that other political forces began to be born in the USSR during the "perestroika". No less important, if not greater, was the fact that the revolution was not so much a surge of social energy as the spontaneous collapse of a system that had outlived its historically determined existence. Sociologist R. Collins wrote in 1986: "" The formal mechanism of withdrawal from the Soviet Union is ready. The fifteen largest, ethnically diverse regions are officially autonomous states with a local governance mechanism. Now this autonomy is ineffective, as the armed forces, monetary system and economic planning are controlled by the central government, and political control is exercised by a single national Communist Party. The importance of an autonomous ethnic structure, however, is that it contains ethnic definitions and at the same time organizational structures that can form the basis of truly individual states if the central government is severely weakened. Read more...
Explanation:The member states of the Commonwealth are the founding states, which are committed to the Charter within one year after its adoption by the Council of Heads of State. Ukraine has NOT done so. Here is what is written on the website of the Ministry of Justice of Ukraine: "On January 22, 1993, the CIS Charter was adopted by a decision of the CIS Council of Heads of State. This Decision has not been signed in Ukraine. Therefore, Ukraine is not a member state of the Commonwealth, as it is not a party to the CIS Charter. " On the CIS Internet portal itself, there is a treasury. Despite the decree of the President of Ukraine on the termination of participation in the statutory bodies of the organization, they stubbornly refuse to admit it - Ukraine is still listed among the participating countries.
Explanation:The occupiers wanted Ukrainians to be more in power in Ukraine. Prior to that, there were no more than 20%. This was necessary so that Ukrainians, having received some levers of control, would not fight against them. According to the historian, Professor Stanislav Kulchytsky, this was not easy, because people in the Soviet apparatus simply did not understand the Ukrainian language - and therefore it was difficult for them to communicate with the local population. Among other things, a course for Ukrainization was announced. Officials were forced to take an exam in Ukrainian. Those who did not surrender were fired. Thanks to this course, we managed to win the favor of Ukrainian elites. Some of the emigrants representing the Ukrainian People's Republic began to return to "Soviet Ukraine", in particular, in 1924 Hrushevsky arrived. In Kyiv, he began to establish the Institute of Ukrainian History. But the Bolsheviks always remembered that in parallel with theirs, Petliur's Ukrainization was also carried out due to national liberation aspirations. Therefore, in the late 1930s, after Soviet rule took root in Ukrainian lands, mass Russification began. Those who took an active part in Ukrainization were shot or sent to camps. The pogrom of historical institutions created by Hrushevsky began. Most of Hrushevsky's staff and students were arrested and deported. Read more...
Explanation:The main purpose of "indigenization" was the rooting of Soviet power on the periphery, it contributed to the revival of national languages and cultures. Ukrainization was carried out even in places of compact residence of Ukrainians outside the USSR. In particular, the two-thirds population of Kuban, which consisted of Ukrainians, had the opportunity to teach children in Ukrainian schools, read Ukrainian newspapers and magazines, and listen to local radio programs in their native language. Over time, the National Communists began to hint that it would be fair to transfer the Kuban district of the North Caucasus region to Ukraine. Fearing separate manifestations, the Stalinist regime was enthusiastic about the flourishing of the "socialist content and national form" of Ukrainian culture and introduced anti-Ukrainian repression. As the largest national republic, Ukraine has been at the epicenter of these repressions since 1929, aimed at preventing possible future manifestations of separatism. Historian Stanislav Kulchytsky explains the fear of losing Ukraine by the organization under the guise of grain famine-genocide of 1932-1933.
Explanation:Vladimir Putin contradicts himself: on the one hand, he says that Ukrainians as a nation and as a people have never existed. On the other hand, he says that we are fraternal peoples. The Ukrainian issue during the Soviet occupation was so important that it cannot be were: a) neither to ignore, b) nor to lose. Historian Yaroslav Hrytsak explains that despite all those attempts to control Ukraine, it turned out to be one of the most uncontrolled territories. Because the Ukrainian movement in the Soviet Union was one of the strongest. He was particularly strong in western Ukraine, in Galicia, where the nationalist underground waged armed struggle until the late 1940s. Even after the suppression of this movement, Soviet Ukraine remained a problematic territory. Concessions to Ukraine in the USSR were not the good will of the Bolsheviks. It was an attempt to reckon with circumstances pragmatically. An attempt to maintain control over these territories, without which power cannot be retained at the center. Eventually, the Ukrainians withdrew from the Soviet Union, thus driving the last nail into his coffin. That is why they say that the reunification of Ukrainian lands was one of Stalin's biggest miscalculations.
Пояснення:According to the Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact signed with Germany under the formal pretext of protecting the populations of Western Ukraine and Belarus on September 17, 1939, the Red Army captured Western Ukraine. occupied by the USSR, and this period has been called the Soviet annexation of Western Ukraine since 1939. Historian, local historian and researcher Oleg Bazhan says that the so-called "reunification" of Ukrainian lands in 1939 and later in 1940 (Bessarabia) is an inclusion. because reunification is the Act of Unification of January 22, 1919, and it was an initiative of the masses, not what was approved by the Kremlin, as in the case of the accession of Western Ukraine and Bessarabia. On October 1, 1939, the Politburo of the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks) decided on the "Question of Western Ukraine and Western Belarus,"which contained provisions for elections that would legalize Soviet power in the annexed territories. They took place on October 22-23 under the close control of the Soviet military authorities and with the involvement of about 50,000 propagandists and agitators.
Explanation:According to the Minister of Defence of Ukraine Andriy Zagorodniuk and the First Deputy Chief of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of Ukraine Igor Kabanenko, diplomat Oleksandr Hary, the mention of Snake Island in Putin's article is not accidental. Probably, Russian strategists are considering scenarios of appropriation of the island. According to them, our country is most vulnerable to maritime threats and this island is a high-risk area. Despite its small size and somewhat remote location, the island is extremely important for Ukraine. The prefix "geo-" means the well-known location of the island not only in the area of significant deposits of natural gas and oil on the continental shelf of Ukraine (according to some estimates, it is 10 million tons of oil and 70 billion cubic meters of gas), but also near the delta the Danube river, which washes the shores of 10 countries. With increasing competition from Moscow for control of Black Sea communications, this component of the geostrategic importance of Snake Island poses a real threat to its occupation by Russia.
Explanation:The myth that Russian propaganda began to spread after the collapse of the Soviet Union concerns the Crimean peninsula. In fact, on February 9, 1954, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR issued a Decree "On the transfer of the Crimean region from the RSFSR to the USSR" with the wording: "Given the common economy, territorial proximity and close economic and cultural ties between the Crimean region and the Ukrainian SSR, The Presidium of the Verkhovna Rada of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics decides: "To transfer the Crimean region from the RSFSR to the Ukrainian SSR." On April 26 of the same year, the Supreme Soviet of the USSR approved the decree of the Presidium by the law "On the Transfer of the Crimean Region from the RSFSR to the USSR" and amended Article 22 and 23 of the USSR Constitution. On June 2, 1954, the RSFSR passed the Law on Amendments to Article 14 of the Constitution of the RSFSR, according to which the Crimean region was no longer part of it. On June 17, 1954, the Verkhovna Rada of the Ukrainian SSR passed the Law on Amendments to Article 18 of the Constitution of the Ukrainian SSR, according to which the Crimean region became part of the Ukrainian SSR. Thus, the USSR legally completed the procedure of transferring the Crimean region and the city of Sevastopol from the Russian Soviet Federal Socialist Republic to the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. It is unknown what "gross violations" Putin is talking about. Crimea is not a gift, it is the historical homeland of Crimean Tatars. And Putin does not say how cruel the regime was to the Crimean Tatars during the 1944 deportation. On the historical background of the transfer of Crimea in 1954 and the indigenous population of the peninsula - in the article and comments of historians.
Explanation:“Subcarpathian Russia” is the same project as “New Russia”, created with the support of the “Russian world.” Created to destabilize the situation and support the myth that Ukraine does not exist as a state within its current borders. According to the 2011 census in the Czech Republic, 739 people in the country identified themselves as Ruthenians. According to the latest Ukrainian census in 2001, 10,000 Transcarpathians (0.8% of the region's population) called themselves Rusyns. In addition to the Czech Republic, Ruthenian communities also operate in Slovakia, Poland, the Balkans and North America. Some stand on the positions of political Rusynism, others define themselves as Rusyn-Ukrainians, one of the ethnographic groups of the Ukrainian people. Putin mentions Ruthenians for good reason. Linguist and professor Larysa Masenko notes that “Attempts to distinguish the Ruthenian language as separate from Ukrainian are not new. Their roots go back to the national policy of autocratic Russia, the main principle of which in relation to the enslaved peoples was "divide and rule." The current resuscitation of this old imperial provocation, designed to split the Ukrainians of Transcarpathia and the surrounding regions of Slovakia into two separate ethnic groups, has already achieved significant success in Slovak territory. The next stage in the intensification of the so-called "Ruthenian question" took place from the beginning of Russian aggression. In 2015, the Russian media periodically raised it in manipulative formats. And even "reported" that the Czech government is ready to support the Ruthenians. Former SBU chairman Vasyl Hrytsak also noted that Russia is funding a number of organizations in Ukraine that are designed to destabilize the situation in the country. Among such organizations, for example, "Transcarpathian region". In 2014, a certain Petro Getsko proposed the illegal restoration of the so-called "Republic of Subcarpathian Russia" and even appealed to Vladimir Putin to conduct a peacekeeping operation to "restore the pre-Soviet status of the Republic of Subcarpathian Russia." The new republic in Ukraine never appeared. Getsko fled to Russia, and the head of the "Diet" Dmitry Sidor sank to the bottom.
Explanation:The author is manipulating, because in fact in October-November 1944 , during World War II, Soviet troops occupied the territory of Transcarpathia, and a puppet pro-Soviet "National Committee of Transcarpathian Ukraine" was formed in Mukachevo. It was under manual rule that this Soviet body proclaimed the "will of the Ukrainian people" to secede from Czechoslovakia and join the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. After two months of conflict and futile negotiations, on February 1, 1945the Czechoslovak government delegation was forced to accept Soviet control over Carpathian Ukraine, and on June 29, 1945,a Soviet-Czechoslovak treaty was signed in Moscow. Soviet Ukraine, although neither the Transcarpathian nor the Ukrainian delegations took part in these negotiations. Read about the Sovietization of Transcarpathia here
Explanation:The USSR has created an ideal machine for creating myths and falsifying history. All previous manipulations and fakes of Vladimir Putin in this article were made in order to make a false and propagandistic conclusion that Ukraine is not without Russia. But this is a lie. Ukraine is a separate country from the millennium Ukrainians are a separate people, not a fraternal one, the Ukrainian language is not Russian, but the thesis of a single ancient language for Ukrainians, Russians, and Belarusians is a Soviet myth. territory whose borders in the northwest, north and east far exceeded the current borders of modern Ukraine, and these borders were recognized by a number of European states by signing international treaties: the RSFSR (Bolshevik Government of the Russian Federation), the German Empire, the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary. Negotiations were held to establish a federation with the Cuban Empire annu. Crimea was formally an autonomy. During its existence in the early twentieth century. Independent Ukraine has achieved international recognition, has become a truly functioning subject of international law - signed intergovernmental agreements, participated in international conferences, and established bilateral diplomatic and consular relations with more than 20 countries. And most importantly, the process of state-building in Ukraine was interrupted not as a result of internal cataclysms, but as a result of external aggression by Russia. Here is a map of the Ukrainian People's Republic for the Paris Peace Conference of 1919. The main criterion for the territory's belonging to Ukraine was the presence of a Ukrainian ethnic majority there, recorded by censuses and ethnographic maps. Another criterion took into account the existing administrative boundaries, strategic and economic importance for Ukraine's surrounding areas.
Explanation:Historian Stanislav Kulchytsky emphasizes that the Bolsheviks' attitude to borders was rather "liberal", but the reason is that he immediately identifies Russia as part of the USSR as a "super-republic", as its leading position among "equal republics" "" there was an empire, there was a new reincarnation of the empire, just under a different sign. The thesis of world revolution in the classics of Marxism was indeed pervasive, but it was the Bolsheviks Soviet Ukraine remained a problematic territory, Ukraine's concessions to the USSR were not the good will of the Bolsheviks, it was an attempt to deal with the situation pragmatically, an attempt to maintain control over these territories, without which According to Roman Shporlyuk, there was no history for Russia within its current borders. precedent. This is true, but the same can be said of many other countries in Europe, not to mention Asia and Africa. Until 1990, Germany did not exist within its current borders. Poland, which appeared in 1945, has never existed before. Turkey, which looks so small to everyone but the Kurds, is so natural and "normal," in the 1920s it seemed an artificial formation of the post-Ottoman world. New Turkey was even less "historic" than post-Soviet Russia. Having proclaimed the principle of internationalism in 1917 and introduced it until the early 1930s, the Bolsheviks eventually abandoned it. This shift was largely due to the real balance of power between the Russians and the non-Russian peoples that emerged during the first decade of Soviet rule. The real revolution, which turned part of the nations of the Soviet Union into communities subordinate to the Russians, and hindered the evolution of some other nations into full-fledged nations, took place in the 1930s. It was then that the elite of non-Russian nations and peoples were physically destroyed, and the Russian language and culture confidently took the "leading" positions they hold today. The Soviet Union was the first communist state to proclaim itself the prototype of the communist future, but at the same time it was a Russian empire adapted to the needs of the twentieth century. Communism was usually seen as a purely Russian product, produced in the Soviet Union and exported to Eastern Europe. For non-Russian peoples, he was synonymous with Russian domination.
Explanation:This thesis contains all kinds of manipulations. I would very much like to know which sources contain such false and manipulative information as in this article? What is written in open access is recognized as a fact and the value of archives is underestimated. By the way, it is Russia that does not provide access to the archives of the Soviet period and tries to block, for example, the Ukrainian electronic archive. Of course, "external patrons" (labeling) do not mention the "facts" invented in Russia. "There are crimes of the" Soviet regime "and why should they not be condemned? If they were in the USSR under the "leading role of the CPSU" (as later written in the article), then, of course, this is a direct relationship, and Russia is the successor, and it is she who keeps silent about these crimes, because it spoils the picture of her "glorious history". But the truth is known there as well. The actions of the Bolsheviks to seize Ukraine are considered a criminal act. It is written about the Bolsheviks here. The weakening of Russia and its enemies is not only a label, but also a conspiracy theory of the whole "bad" world against the "good" Russia. Let us separately mention the famine terror used to exterminate Ukrainians. Of the 195 countries in the world, the Holodomor of 1932-1933 is recognized as an act of genocide in Ukraine at the interstate level, in addition to Ukraine, 15 UN member states and the Vatican. The Holodomor was perpetrated by the Soviet leadership to subdue the Ukrainians, to finally eliminate Ukrainian resistance to the regime, and to attempts to build an independent Ukrainian state independent from Moscow.
Explanation:In the first sentence, the beginning about the borders is true, and then there is the recognition that in fact there was no federation in the USSR. This is a lie, because in 1991 Ukraine really left the USSR, and the question of the border actually "hung". The demarcation did not take place at all. The borders remained within the republic. The people who lived there did not actually stay abroad and were not cut off from the "historical homeland". Until 2004, everyone traveled without visas with ordinary passports, without restriction of stay. There were no "cuts". This is a lie.
Explanation:All the previous text was written in order to distort the history and the argument" "one nation" seemed logical. However, Ukrainians and Russians have never been one nation, there were no older and younger brothers, there was no single "cradle". The use of the "one nation" thesis is often repeated by Putin and Russian propaganda, uniting Ukrainians, Belarusians and other Slavs, thus emphasizing that they do not exist as a separate nation.Lyubov Tsybulska, head of the Center for Strategic Communications and Information Security, notes:: "We see that over the last year the intensity of hostilities in Donbass has been declining, Ukrainians are feeling less threatened, so this is a good time to push for peace and friendship with the Russians and "one nation"." Manipulation that "part of one nation" .. "may at some point feel, realize itself as a separate nation" and further declaration of "respect" for such an event manipulatively adjust to a positive attitude towards Putin: give the impression, as if he supports Ukrainians in their self-identification. At the same time, previous sentences suggest that Putin sees Ukrainians as part of a "one people" with Russians, which is not true.According to Yuriy Kononenko, director of the Department of General Secondary and Preschool Education at the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine, there is no Ukrainian-language school in Russia, although according to official figures, 2 million Ukrainians live in the country.
Explanation:Ukraine is a separate state. Russia recognized Ukraine's borders and sovereignty during the signing of the Budapest Memorandum and the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Partnership between Ukraine and the Russian Federation. Ukraine's borders with other countries were approved earlier, Ukraine's border with Russia is confirmed in Article 2. of the Agreement on Friendship, Cooperation and Partnership between Ukraine and the Russian Federation, which entered into force on April 2, 1999. That is, negotiations were held and the parties agreed. Ukraine's borders, approved in 1922, were approved in violation of the ethnographic principle, the lands where the majority of the population was Ukrainian were cut off from Ukraine, and attempts to rectify this situation continued until 1929. Read more here/span> and here /span>
Explanation:Russia recognized Ukraine's territorial integrity in 1999 and reaffirmed its inviolability. However, it was Russia that occupied Crimea with a fake referendum and fought in parts of Donetsk and Luhansk oblasts. Putin, like his propagandists, has repeatedly hinted at Ukraine's reluctance. They say that there may be little left of Ukraine if all countries take away territories that at different times in history were within their states. Vladimir Zhirinovsky in 2014 even wrote a letter to Poland. According to the selective logic of "it's good for me", Putin for some reason limits the time of borders to the creation of the Union, while delimiting the activities of the Bolsheviks. The author calls their actions manipulation and voluntarism in order to oppose their activities. Proof of this is the last part of the sentence: "ignoring the opinion of the people." Thus, he appeals to the so-called referendum in Crimea and puts it to his credit. That is, on the part of Russia, we see a desire to change the borders of states for their own purposes (for example, control over the Black Sea), but at the same time find excuses for these shameful actions. It will be recalled that in 1922 the borders of Ukraine were approved in violation of the ethnographic principle, the lands where the majority of the population were Ukrainians were cut off from Ukraine, and attempts to rectify this situation continued until 1929.
Explanation:Throughout history, the Russian Federation has tried to destroy Ukraine and make it part of Russia, part of the concept of "one people." The author openly manipulates when he says that Russia has recognized the geopolitical position of Ukraine. For example, back in 1992, the Russian Federation questioned the affiliation of Crimea and Odessa to Ukraine. In July 1993, the State Duma decided to grant Sevastopol the status of a Russian city. By the way, the United Nations Security Council found such a statement unfounded and dangerous. Putin does not say that the borders between Ukraine and Russia were defined only in 1999 under the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Partnership between Ukraine and the Russian Federation.It was Russia that seized the Ukrainian Crimea, holding a fake referendum, and also seized part of the Donetsk and Russian regions. Russia's support was aimed at creating a Ukrainian colony subordinated to Russia. We see the example of the "Union State" between Belarus and Russia. Ukraine is a sovereign state despite all attempts to rewrite history by Russia.
Explanation:What Putin calls "Kiev's political arithmetic" was in fact a trial in the Stockholm Arbitration Court that lasted almost four years. . Russia cannot accept a loss. It was Russia's Gazprom that tried to sue Ukraine for $ 82 billion. According to Gazprom and Putin, Ukraine should pay in accordance with the "take or pay" provisions (which establishes the obligation to pay for unselected volumes of gas) for 2009-2017. That is, the terms of the "take or pay" contractforced Naftogaz to pay for the gas we did not receive in 2009-2017. The Arbitration Court considered the case for 4 years and made two decisions on the take-or-pay gas supply contract and the transit contract. billion dollars. Russia, as always, ignores all the legal consequences taken not in its favor and therefore says that she gave us this money. Read more here
Explanation:The development of the economy of the former USSR provided for the maximum integration of the economies of the union republics. In fact, the economy was based on the internationalization of economic life in the USSR, increasing specialization and cooperation of production; According to economists, 70-80% of the total number of industrial productions in Ukraine did not have closed technological cycles. They could not exist without industrial cooperation with enterprises of other republics of the USSR. Ukraine did not develop such energy-intensive industries as electronic, electrical, computer, precision engineering. Raw materials worked for all-Union needs, which led to their depletion. УFollowing Russia, Ukraine began to copy Poland's "shock therapy", trying to build a market economy in "500 days". In the West, this process took several centuries, given the era of the Reformation, which led to the Peace of Westphalia (1648), the end of religious wars in Europe and gave impetus to the Industrial Revolution. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, Russia has indeed been a key economic partner of Ukraine. Entire sectors of the economy have often relied on cheap energy from Russia. However, such investment and "support" were largely political in nature and preserved non-market sectors of the economy that had long needed to be modernized. In fact, this is the way in which Russia has made Ukraine dependent on itself. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, Ukrainian industry often depended on orders from Russia, and Russian industry depended on Ukrainian parts. However, in the new market conditions, most of these projects were not economically feasible. Instead of developing market models of the economy, Russia tried to make Ukraine the most convenient contractor. Russia uses this dependence to "blackmail" and promote pro-Russian geopolitical decisions. For example, in 2010, when Ukrainian President Viktor Yanukovych and Russian President Dmitry Medvedev signed the so-called "Kharkov agreements" to reduce gas prices by 30% in exchange for extending the lease of the Russian Black Sea Fleet in Sevastopol for 25 years - up to 2042. Or in 2010, when after Ukraine's refusal to join the Eurasian Customs Union, Russia launched a "trade war" by imposing a number of restrictions on Ukrainian goods. Or in 2013, when Russia used a number of economic levers to prevent the signing of an Association Agreement with the European Union, including an additional discount on gas and a $ 15 billion loan. Today, Russia is no longer a key economic partner and has less and less. economic instruments to put pressure on Ukraine.
Explanation:The author takes the data out of context and interprets it to his advantage. When the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991, Ukraine had the second largest scientific potential of the 15 former republics. According to Euromaidan Press editor-in-chief Ali Shandra, there was a state demand for research and innovation, but specific, focused on heavy industry and military service, a priority area during the Cold War. missiles, planes and everything that is useful for the military, but there were no good cars, refrigerators, washing machines - the production chain was focused on the defense sector, now it is gone, and no new chains have been built. - 2/3 of the publications of Ukrainian scientists are in journals devoted to technical sciences ( from engineering to chemistry), the remaining 1/3 are divided between medical sciences, life sciences, agriculture, and humanities. Compared to the United States, engineering sciences in Ukraine are overdeveloped, and medical and biological sciences are underdeveloped, reflecting the low value of saving human life compared to the high value of achieving technological progress under communist ideology. The current Ukrainian government is not interested in the development of science and proper education, in part because there is no science-oriented production that requires innovative scientific ideas. In a corrupt business environment in Ukraine, companies did not need high-tech production, as this did not bring any competitive advantages - giving bribes to the right people was the best factor for business growth. Putin is trying to simplify the difficult economic and political situation in one sentence, although in reality there are a number of factors and mistakes that have led to this state of affairs. Read about 7 economic decisions of the Ukrainian government that had the most catastrophic consequences for the country's economy.
Explanation:There is pure manipulation, some numbers and indicators are pulled out and based on them, without respect for causation, a large-scale conclusion is made. Industry in Ukraine suffered a large-scale decline in 2008-09, during the global crisis. Although the decline in industrial production in all countries of the world, however, the rate of reduction is much lower than in Ukraine. The final factor of the negative dynamics was the crisis of 2013-15: the armed conflict in the Donbass (loss of enterprises in Luhansk, Donetsk regions and the occupied Crimea). The second reason - the lion's share of production was exiled to Russia. Accordingly, the technologies we used did not develop, which did not allow Ukraine to become competitive on the world market, our goods had low added value. Predominant dependence on the demand of one buyer is a bad idea, and when this buyer is Russia, it is the worst. According to economist Yaroslav Zhalil, "It is important that the structure of exports in Ukraine is slightly different. In 2007, most exports consisted of metallurgy and chemical products, and industries fell sharply during the crisis. Today more than 50% are agricultural and food products. Demand for such products decreases much more slowly during the crisis. Everyone wants to eat " As for electricity, production has halved in 2020 to 148.8 billion kWh, and in 1990 to 297 kWh. However, along with the reduction in production, electricity consumption also decreased. Ukraine has approved the Comprehensive State Energy Saving Program of Ukraine since 1997.It is also worth mentioning the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, which Putin has successfully silenced. In the pre-accident period - from 1977 to 1986 - the Chernobyl nuclear power plant generated 150.2 billion kilowatt-hours of electricity. In the period from 1986 to 2000 - 158.6 billion kWh of electricity. The Chernobyl NPP finally stopped producing electricity on December 15, 2000. Also, more electricity began to be produced from alternative sources.
Explanation:This is outright manipulation. Putin takes one parameter - GDP per capita, which due to its imperfections, can not be the only criterion for determining a country. And he sees the explanation for this in the fact that in the "good old days" everything was good, and the break from cooperation with Russia made us poor. This is one of the populist messages often used by pro-Russian politicians, an easy explanation that is liked by many people detached from reality. If we take standard approaches to poverty assessment, then according to one of the indicators, which is based on the calculation of the share of residents living in the amount less than the national subsistence level, in 2019 in Ukraine such 1.1%. In the same Russia 22.6% (2018), Belarus 5%, Bulgaria 23.8%, in detail in the reference to the World Bank. In fact, such a "good" result we have due to lowering the official subsistence level, but this example is given in order to to show how you can snatch some single indicators and use to your advantage (this should not be done). Regarding more encouraging indicators, it is worth paying attention to the PPP (purchasing power parity), which shows which goods and services can be bought for $ 1,000 in different parts of the world, ie in Ukraine it will be more goods than Germany or the United States.
Explanation:The use of technology "people are good - the king is bad. We need to change the king". But in Ukraine there are no kingdoms, but there is democracy - and this is the fundamental difference between Ukraine and Russia. For example, according to the Levada Center, 40% of Russians consider Ukraine unfriendly to Russia. According to opinion polls, Ukraine ranks second on the list of hostile countries, second only to the United States. The survey of Ukrainians and Russians on the perception of Stalin, which differs significantly from the United States, shows how well propaganda works in Russia. If among Russians 40% of respondents feel positive feelings about him ("admiration", "respect" and "sympathy"), and 12% - negative ("dislike", "fear", "disgust"), among Ukrainians there is an inverse proportion - 14% (positive) against 42% (negative). Залишається незмінною російська пропаганда та викривлення історії, бажання впливу та контролю України. А про любов до України з боку Росії найкраще говорить окупація Криму та розв’язання війни на Сході нашої держави.
Explanation:Until 2014, when Russia occupied the Ukrainian Crimea and started the war in the East, joint projects worked mostly to create a Russian-dependent Ukrainian economy. Despite numerous agreements, both bilateral and within the CIS - in particular, economic - trade Ukraine and Russia were in deficit for the first onein particular, as of 2013.) The majority of Russian exports were energy, which caused Kyiv's dependence on Moscow, caused the gradual abandonment of its own gas and oil production, and violated the European Energy Charter. Culturally, the pro-Russian leadership has doomed the Ukrainian media and art to a faded background for an unjustifiably ubiquitous Russian product, and laid a fertile ground for the flourishing of disinformation and propaganda, often overtly anti-Western. At the same time, Moscow not only "tied" Ukraine to itself, but also severely punished any attempts by the leadership to develop profitable bilateral relations with the EU: in August 2013, Putin's then adviser S. Glazyev during the "trade war" "In fact, he confirmed that the intensified customs administration of Ukrainian goods is due to Ukraine's preparations for signing the Association Agreement with the EU. Therefore, it is hardly possible to speak of any "mutually beneficial partnership": Putin's nostalgic "good old days" "marked Moscow's aggressive dominance in political and economic relations with Kyiv.
Explanation:Russia occupied Crimea and started the war in Donbass after Ukraine chose the European path of development. "We are not against the Association. We have to defend our economy. The open gates today within the Free Trade Area with Ukraine, we can not leave in this state. If Ukraine opens its gates to the European Union. And we will have to close it. It means that the products of mechanical engineering will continue to be accounted for, as they are sold on the Russian market, and the products of the agricultural food group are unlikely to grow in the European direction," Vladimir Putin said in August 2013. At the same time, Russia stopped passing goods from Ukrainian producers at customs. He predicted that if Ukraine joined the association with the EU, the flow of goods "quite good in quality and price" would inevitably flood the Ukrainian market. And this, according to Putin, will lead to the fact that the goods of Ukrainian producers will be "squeezed" from their own market. In fact, Russia has done everything to keep Ukraine economically dependent. It is because of this dependence (one of the reasons), short-sightedness of politicians, orientation in the production of goods, primarily to Russia, Ukraine has not developed other vectors and lags behind other European countries.
Explanation:Yes, Russia is still one of the three largest importers of Ukrainian goods and services. In 2020, the figure was 8.5%. In 2020, the foreign trade turnover of goods and services with the Russian Federation decreased by 40.0%. Exports of goods and services to Russia decreased by 43.6%. Imports - by 35.4%. Ukraine's main trading partners are also China, the United States and Turkey. They account for 13.3%, 4.9% and 4.6% of the foreign trade turnover of goods and services in 2020, respectively. EU countries (28) are Ukraine's largest trading partners. The share of these countries in the foreign trade turnover of goods and services of Ukraine in 2020 was 40.7%. Back in 2013, Russia by a wide margin dominated the structure of Ukraine's foreign trade with a share of 23.8%. Ukraine's cooperation with Russia is a consequence of the dependent economy of the Soviet era, as well as forced by us, rather than initiated by Russia.
Explanation:According to the Ukrainian government, about three million Ukrainian citizens work abroad on a permanent basis alone. The exact number of workers is unknown, as no one knows how many of them work illegally and these statistics are not included in any statistics. According to the National Bank of Ukraine, in 2019 alone Ukrainian workers transferred almost $ 12 billion to their homeland. According to the Ambassador of Ukraine to Poland Andriy Deshchytsia, about 1.5 million Ukrainians currently work in Poland. In general, there is an increase in labor migration to Poland. The level of labor migration to the Czech Republic is also growing. As of March 2021, the number of Ukrainian citizens employed more or less long-term in the Czech labor market was about 200,000. According to the study on migration and human trafficking "Ukraine, Moldova, Belarus and Georgia, 2019", the most attractive countries for labor migration of Ukrainians are Germany, where 43% of respondents would like to work, Poland (35%), Czech Republic (23%) ), Italy (19%) and Canada (10%). 9% of respondents would like to work in Russia and the United States. Regarding Ukrainian workers in Russia. According to the State Statistics Committee and the Ptukha Institute of Demography and Social Research, in 2010-2012 the largest number of labor migrants from Ukraine was in Russia - 496 thousand. From 2012 to 2017, migration to Russia decreased by at least a third and in 2017 amounted to 343 thousand Ukrainians. We have the latest data for the first half of 2019. Almost 165,000 Ukrainians came to work in Russia. Thus, Russia is inferior to European countries with higher incomes, such as Poland and the Czech Republic. As for the number of Ukrainian migrants, it is not that so many of us want to work in Russia, on the contrary, the majority of those who consider the possibility of labor migration are looking to the EU. And the only reason for such a large number of our fellow citizens in Russia is the language barrier, or rather its absence (understanding of the Russian language after many years of planting Russian-language product in all possible areas, common to almost all Ukrainians). Russia is an aggressor country because it occupied Crimea and started the war in Donbass. This is the usual scheme of Russian propaganda - to distract and replace the concept.
Explanation:In 1991, the USSR fought in the last death throes of the collapse of the empire. According to the first President of Ukraine Leonid Kravchuk, despite the opposition and pressure of Gorbachev, the then leader of the Kremlin, Ukraine was determined to gain independence in 1991. Ukraine will not survive without an alliance with Russia, and persuaded L. Kravchuk that Ukrainians are so passionate about the Soviet Union that the referendum on Ukraine's independence will inevitably fail. Ukrainians unanimously wanted sovereignty and separation from both the Soviet Union and Russia, so the "united people" is only in the minds of propagandists who refuse to take into account obvious facts and prefer to distort and rewrite history. According to L. Kravchuk, among other options, Russia has chosen a painful path of severing economic relations, as always re-evaluating its potential and not caring about the economic situation in Ukraine. Relations were destroyed long before 1991, during the genocide of the Ukrainian people in 1932-1933 or the "shooting revival" and "great terror" of 1937-38, during which more than 260,000 Ukrainians were killed in two years. The loss of Russia's influence on Ukrainian culture began with the proclamation of Ukraine's independence, although during the 1990s Russian mass culture flooded the Ukrainian book, pop, and film markets. But the fall of President Viktor Yanukovych's pro-Russian regime, the occupation of Crimea and the armed aggression in Donbas have reversed this process.
Explanation:The "author's" past is distorted by himself and his propaganda machine. In particular, the historical "facts" he cites in this article are refuted above. On the basis of distorted and untrue facts, Putin draws convenient conclusions. Calling the Holodomor a joint tragedy between Ukraine and Russia, Putin is openly cunning. In April 2020, the scientific publication Cambridge University Press published an article comparing the losses from the Holodomor of various republics that were part of the USSR. The article was created on the basis of documents taken out by Ukrainian scientist Natalka Levchuk during the annexation of Crimea by Russia. For the Ukrainian audience, the article was analyzed in Radio Svoboda. In short, Ukraine's losses are incomparable with Russia and other republics. At least 4.2 times more people died in Ukraine than in Russia - 133.3 people per 1,000 population, compared to 32 in Russia. In the same article, "Radio Liberty" refers to the work of Australian scientists, who claim that the highest mortality was observed in those regions where most Ukrainians lived. (Whitcroft S., Harnaut A. Population losses in some areas of the USSR (1929-1934): Statistics, maps and comparative analysis (The special situation of Ukraine) // Famine of 1933: Ukrainians: - K .: Ukrainian Institute of National Memory, 2013 ) Preliminary actions and correspondence of the top leadership of the USSR show whose tragedy the Holodomor really was. In a letter to L. Kaganovich, Stalin wrote: " The most important thing now is Ukraine. Things in Ukraine are out of hand. Bad on the party line. It is said that in two regions of Ukraine (apparently in Kyiv and Dnipropetrovsk) about 50 district committees have spoken out against the grain procurement plan, declaring it unrealistic. The situation in other district committees, as they say, is no better ... ... Bad on the Soviet side ... ... Bad on the GPU line. Redens does not want to lead the fight against the counterrevolution in such a large and unique republic as Ukraine. If we do not take action now to rectify the situation in Ukraine, we may lose Ukraine."
Explanation:Neo-Nazis - labeling Russian propaganda. The Russian Foreign Ministry claims that neo-Nazis are allegedly marching through Kyiv, and traditionally in a post about "Ukrainian neo-Nazism" the Russian Foreign Ministry mentioned the National Corps party, the Svoboda All-Ukrainian Union and the public nationalist organization Right sector"". In 2014, ORT launched a fake with an infographic in which the leader of the "Right Sector" Dmitry Yarosh allegedly won 37% of the vote in the election, while he won 0.7%. It is not necessary to say that "radicals and neo-Nazis have more and more boldly declared their ambitions" - radical movements in Ukraine were formed much earlier and quite logically intensified during the stormy events. There are right-wing political forces in every country in Europe, including Ukraine. However, they have very low support among the population. For example, in the 2019 presidential election, candidate Ruslan Koshulynsky, who was supported by all nationalist forces, received 1.62% of the vote. The National Corps, Svoboda and Right Sector parties decided to run in the early parliamentary elections as a single nationalist bloc with further consolidation of patriotic associations and organizations. Thus, under the auspices of "Freedom", "nationalist forces received 2.15% of the vote and did not go to Parliament. The popularity of radical right-wing forces in Ukraine remains lower than in many EU countries. Moreover, Russia is characterized by an approach with the principle: "he who is not with us is a fascist" and "protection of Russian-speakers." The Kremlin also built its anti-Ukrainian campaign on these principles. In Russia, from the very beginning of the aggression against Ukraine, it was claimed that the reason for its invasion, first in Crimea and then in the east of the country, was a "coup d'etat" and, as a result, a "neo-Nazi regime." Moreover, in 2018, the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs launched a flashmob on its Facebook page, proposing to disseminate information about "manifestations of xenophobia and neo-Nazism" in Ukraine under the hashtag #IhTamNet. It is through the media that Russia is inflating the topic of Nazism in Ukraine. The myth of the neo-Nazis who invaded Ukraine belongs to Russian propaganda and has nothing to do with Ukrainian life. Read more....
Explanation:False statement that the author makes on false information from the previous thesis. There are no neo-Nazis in Ukraine. There are right-wing political forces in every country in Europe, including Ukraine. However, they have very low support among the population. The rest of the information is a game of stereotypes and people's dissatisfaction. Putin does not provide any evidence or names. Who stated exactly when, what ambitions and what radicals and neo-Nazis? Theses about "local oligarchs who robbed the people" are also emotional, unappealable, without specifying specifics. Just like "kept in Western banks and ready to sell their mother to save capital." As for the "chronic weakness of state institutions, the state of the voluntary hostage of someone else's geopolitical will," this thesis is too general to understand what Putin meant: you can say anything.
Explanation:For some reason, Vladimir Putin does not cite examples, and this is not surprising - the statement is wrong. Ukraine is an independent state, which, given a number of aspects, decides with whom to work and cooperate. Putin said in August 2013:" We We are not forced to defend our economy. We cannot leave the open gates today in the Free Trade Zone with Ukraine. If Ukraine opens its gates to the European Union, we will have to close it. This means that the products Mechanical engineering will continue to fall, as it is sold on the Russian market, and agricultural food products are unlikely to grow in the European direction. " the Ukrainian market inevitably floods the flow of goods "" quite good in quality and price "".At the same time, Russia stopped letting through customs the goods of Ukrainian manufacturers.He assumed that if Ukraine enters into association with the EU, the Ukrainian market will inevitably flood the flow of goods"good enough in quality and price ". In fact, Russia did everything to keep Ukraine economically dependent.Everything that Russian business structures are affected by itself either degrades and accordingly ceases to be competitive with European producers (for example, the Mykolaiv Alumina Plant owned by Oleg Deripaska), or even collapses, as the Zaporozhye Aluminum Plant was destroyed. We will remind, SBU established that the only producer of primary aluminum in Ukraine since 2006 was purposefully destroyed in the interests of the Russian producers of metal. A recent example: the court declared the Black Sea Shipyard bankrupt. According to Oleksandr Diordiev, editor of the Maritime Business News of Ukraine, the plant's bankruptcy proceedings have been launched to prevent the company from being returned to state ownership. Russia has focused its efforts on building a Russian-dependent Ukrainian economy. No other options, especially the development of cooperation with European countries, did not suit Russia.
Explanation:Once again, Ukraine is labeled an independent state that chooses with whom to build relations. Putin is once again trying to impose lies about" foreign rulers. "However, Ukraine has chosen its path apart from Russia in 1991. In 2013, when pro-Russian President Viktor Yanukovych and Prime Minister Mykola Azarov decided to be closer to Russia, millions of Ukrainians across Ukraine chose the European vector of development. As we can see, Ukraine was not a hostage of geopolitical will, otherwise Yanukovych would not have changed his mind about signing the Association Agreement with the EU. The vector "Away from Russia" was chosen by the people. It was then that Russia attacked Ukraine and seized part of Ukrainian territory. It is also worth noting the meaning of the word "barrier" used by Putin. Given the meaning of the word in Russian, it turns out that the goal of geopoliticians is to create a "barrier" between Europe and Russia in the form of Ukraine? Not suitable. We find the necessary meaning in the "Historical Dictionary of Gallicisms of the Russian language": "BARRIER -a m. Barrière f. 1. dipl. Lands annexed to the state for security from attacks by neighboring countries; in general, the territory lying between the two states and dividing them. " Ukraine wanted to remain neutral, but Russia's aggression, occupation of part of the territory and the outbreak of war left no choice but to seek support from NATO. Our country has always been at the center of geopolitical conflicts, but this is no reason to unite with Russia, which really benefits from having a weak puppet country. "Ukraine is not Russia" is Kuchma's famous book, and objectively it is. We recommend watching a series of posters that show that Ukraine has never been Russia, is not Russia and Russia will not be.
Explanation:No one in Ukraine has spoken of 'anti-Russia.' For the first time the existence of such a "large-scale project" as "anti-Russia " talked about back in 2010.Then the publication "Stoletie.ru " reported that Mikheil Saakashvili in Georgia is trying to implement the project "anti-Russia ". Then this history had no movement and died for a while. In 2011, which published seven conspiracy books with titles such as The Dulles Doctrine in Action or Zbigniew Brzezinski: Making Russia a Pawn. In general, this thesis about Ukraine has been rising since 2012. Russian politicians everywhere say that their country needs a single national ideology of state patriotism, but in fact an ideology of national chauvinism. If in Ukraine someone talks about this in relation to the unified state ideology of patriotism and European integration, it is interpreted as an anti-Russian, "Bandera" position, nationalism. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine responded to the thesis about "anti-Russia". According to Foreign Ministry spokesman Oleg Nikolenko, "The conversation about turning Ukraine into the "antipode" of Russia shows a lack of understanding of internal processes in our country. As a sovereign nation, Ukrainians independently determine the vector of their development without being tied to third parties. Neither Russian tanks nor forerunners of the toxic ideas of the "Russian measure" have been and will not be able to stop the transformation of Ukraine into a modern European democracy.
Explanation:This is a set of narratives of Russian propaganda. First, there is no project and no customers. This is a painful imagination of the Russian president. Ukraine is an independent and sovereign state. Second, the work of Polish-Austrian ideologues of the XIX century is obsolete. one can only mention the Moscow and St. Petersburg projects of Panslavism, which tried to destroy the Austrian Empire by annexing part of the territories to the Russian Empire. The creation of "anti-Moscow Russia" is a challenge to all historians. There was the state of Russia, but then under the Russian Empire added "Kiev", which suggested the existence of another Russia. Later, Muscovy adopted the name Russia. Until recently, the Kremlin's narratives spoke of three "movements": Great Russia, White Russia and Little Russia, but now the author has discovered a new one - "Moscow Russia". Here it would be worth giving a verdict not "lie" but "insanity". For some reason, it is suggested that Ukrainians expect special support from other countries. This inspires us with a complex of inferiority "nobody needs you", "everyone used you", and at the same time there should be hope that Russia will do everything in the interests of the people of Ukraine, it needs our culture, our Cossack glory , and living space and workers - no. Of course, this is manipulation. Russia has never needed Ukraine as a strong and independent state. It is Russia that has been destroying Ukrainian culture, language and traditions for centuries. Russia opposes itself to the West, and responds to Ukraine's choice of European path with armed aggression and occupation of territories.
Explanation:Soviet propaganda tried to portray the OUN and the UPA as puppets of Hitler. The OUN and the UPA fought against both the Bolsheviks and the Nazis. According to the Nuremberg tribunal, neither the OUN nor the UPA were recognized as criminal organizations.According to historian Yana Primachenko, the question of the degree of responsibility of different actors remains open and needs microhistorical research, which, after the opening of the archives of the Soviet special services in Ukraine, continues to this day. In general, the Ukrainian situation is not unique, but rather typical for the countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Poland has gone through similar processes. Such discussions are also taking place in the Baltic states. The goal of the desire for cooperation between the OUN and the Nazis was the revival of Ukrainian statehood. The historian draws attention to the fact that until 1939, Nazi Germany had not yet committed the terrible crimes of the Holocaust and massacres, and the "leader" in the mass destruction of people of that time was the Stalinist USSR.
Explanation:To understand the reason for people's dissatisfaction, it is enough to mention the main reason for the Maidan. Azarov's government has announced a decision to suspend the process of preparation for the Association Agreement between Ukraine and the European Union. However, after a secret meeting between Putin and Yanukovych in Sochi, the Ukrainian authorities refused to sign. It was then that people went on a peaceful action for the European path of Ukraine's development. A week after the peaceful assembly, Berkut brutally beat students on Kyiv's Maidan, stunning not only Ukrainians but the world community. The events of November 30 were a turning point in the Ukrainian protests at the end of 2013, shifting the focus of the protests from pro-European to anti-government, as well as adding mass to them. This is a Russian narrative that people were used or paid for. To understand the reason for people's dissatisfaction, it is enough to mention Maidan's demands: withdrawal of Berkut, repeal of illegally passed laws on January 16, cessation of political repressions, return to the 2004 Constitution, new Constitutional Court, resignation of Azarov's government, early parliamentary and presidential elections.
Explanation:There was no coup, this is another narrative of Russian propaganda. Free expression of one's opinions and positions, defense of constitutional rights are the principles of democracy. However, the people who dare to disagree with the actions of the authorities pose a danger to the authoritarian regime. According to Ukrainian law, a coup d'etat is a criminal offense and involves a violent and unconstitutional change of political regime. Former President Yanukovych secretly but voluntarily fled to Russia, and the Verkhovna Rada, under current law, elected a temporary. at. President and continued to function in the original composition of the 7th convocation until November 27, 2014 of the Constitution of Ukraine.
Explanation:Journalists, activists and students who did not represent any radical or nationalist groups were the first to come to the Maidan. This is a narrative of Russian propaganda. The use of the definition of "coup", "nationalists" and "radicals" in relation to the Revolution of Dignity is an anti-state and anti-historical propaganda stamp. It is used to split Ukrainian society, delegitimize power, and devalue the European and Euro-Atlantic aspirations of Ukrainians.
Explanation:To test this lie, it is enough to look at the results of the 2014 parliamentary elections, which were recognized by the international community as democratic. Of those parties that positioned themselves as nationalist, only Oleh Lyashko's Radical Party entered parliament, gaining 7.5%. The Svoboda party won 4.7% and the Right Sector 1.8%, without breaking the 5% barrier. According to Candidate of Political Science V. Andriyash, public policy is a synthesis of trends in social development and subjective judgments of people about their own interests in society. The state policy of Ukraine is determined by the people of Ukraine, which is the image of the European way of development.
Explanation:Prior to that, the author claimed that history brings us closer. But events cannot be changed. There are archival documents and relevant research that show how Russia is trying to rewrite history. "one nation". Statements about ethnic Russians and other minorities have become a formal pretext for military conflict and war. This blow was to be expected from Russia after its 2008 invasion of Georgia. "Russia v. Georgia: Consequences:" It ... has made statements about ethnic Russians and other minorities that could be used in the future to destabilize other former Soviet republics, most notably Ukraine; and demonstrated disregard for international law. " That is why it is important to review cooperation with Russia and minimize its negative impact on Ukraine. "
Explanation:It is quite illogical for the author to mention the Russian language, because when he said that three peoples spoke the same language, he did not consider this language Russian. Then these three peoples formed three languages: Russian, Belarusian, Ukrainian. So why two No, Ukrainian is our state language, and it should unite Ukrainians. It is not a question of striking at the Russian language but of creating conditions for the development of Ukrainian, which has been under pressure and displacement from Russian for many years. Russian propaganda actively spread fakes about "violent Ukrainization", "oppression of the Russian language", "language patrols" and so on. Read more about language fakes
Explanation:The new "Maidan" government is hanging labels. It is as if people from the Maidan came to power. Deputies elected by the people of Ukraine remained in the Verkhovna Rada. As Viktor Yanukovych fled Ukraine and Mykola Azarov resigned,then, accordingly, the Cabinet of Ministers resigned. Putin is once again lying. V. Kirilenko (who has been in power since 2002) initiated the draft law "On Recognizing the Law of Ukraine "On the Fundamentals of the State Language Policy" as null and void", but this was still 12/29/2012 (that is, still under the rule of Yanukovych). Although on February 23 the Verkhovna Rada voted to repeal the law on the languages of national minorities, it was the Parliament of the VII convocation, whose term lasted from December 12, 2012 to November 27, 2014. In fact, Article 10 of the Constitution of Ukraine has been restored.
Explanation:The law on the cleansing of power was adopted in 2014. The law on education - September 5, 2017. If the language was the impetus for the war, it would be logical to make adjustments so that it never happens again. If you turn to the Constitution of Ukraine, it is clear that Articles 10-11 on the protection of the languages and cultures of indigenous peoples and national minorities are in place, so there is no need to worry. There are also textbooks in Russian for the 4th grade of the New Ukrainian School, so it (the language) is in schools. On July 14, the Constitutional Court recognized the Law of Ukraine "On Language" in accordance with the Constitution, and the concept of" Russian-speaking citizens "is not legal. So, there is only one question: why is the president of another country so interested in our laws? Because under the guise of feeling for the rights of "Russian-speakers", aggressive interference in the political, economic, humanitarian, and spiritual life of Ukraine continues.
Explanation:July 1, 2021, the Law "On Indigenous Peoples of Ukraine" was adopted, this law has the following definitions: "Indigenous people of Ukraine are an autochthonous ethnic community formed on the territory of Ukraine, bearers of original language and culture, have traditional, social, cultural or representative bodies, self-aware indigenous people of Ukraine, is an ethnic minority in its population and has no state education outside Ukraine". According to these criteria, the list of indigenous peoples included: Crimean, Karaite and Crimean Tatars, the law no longer has any of the widely represented peoples in Ukraine, neither Belarusians, nor Poles, nor Romanians, etc. Russia has a law on indigenous peoples: "On guarantees of the rights of indigenous peoples of the Russian Federation", there are many more - about 50 and there are no Ukrainians, and can not be, because we are a minority there as they are here. Why does Putin, having such a law, пspeak so badly about ours, which meets all international norms? Maybe because it is advantageous for him to broadcast the ubiquitous "violation" of Russian rights? Rhetorical question. This law does not introduce any inequality or second class, it gives rights to those who have been deprived of them.
Explanation:It's a manipulation and " Appeal to their own rhetorical question". In this thesis, Putin again appeals to the fact that Ukrainians are not an independent nation, but part of a "big family", the so-called "triune people". This concept can be attributed to the "all-Russian idea", which was developed in imperial times. referring to the fact that there is no mention in the chronicles that the North Slavic tribes - Krivichi, Polochans, Vyatichi, Radimichi - who are the ancestors of the Russian people, participated in the creation of Rus (later called Kyiv). In the Small Ukrainian Encyclopedia, historian Eugene Onatsky claims that these tribes were annexed to Kievan Rus during the campaigns of Princes Svyatoslav and Vladimir the Great. The possibility of free choice of national identity is also not true, because the history of Russification of Ukrainians dates back to the XVII century. "Historical Truth" cites several dozen acts and events that prove that Russia did not really perceive the national self-identification of Ukrainians and in every way destroyed the Ukrainian language. Roman Sushko and Myroslav Levitsky write about this in more detail in the book "Chronicles of the destruction of the Ukrainian language from the Romanov era to the present."”. In addition, in his book Between Nationalism and Tolerance, Volodymyr Staryk refers to ethnographic research from 1916 to 1923, which states that in some regions, including Bukovina, all educated people were recorded as Russians during the 1897 census.
Explanation:The legislation of Ukraine guarantees the free development of various national minorities, including Russians. Thus, the Law of Ukraine "On the Principles of State Language Policy" states::
- - Art. 3 item 2 - Everyone, regardless of ethnic origin, national and cultural self-identification, place of residence, religious beliefs has the right to freely use any language in public and private life, to study and maintain any language;
- - Article 5, Part 2, Clause 1, recognizing all languages that are traditionally used within the state or its specific territory as national property, preventing privileges or restrictions on linguistic grounds;
- - Article 5, Part 2, Clause 8, respect for the boundaries of the area of distribution of regional or minority languages in order to ensure that the existing or new administrative-territorial structure does not create obstacles to their development;
- Art. 1 Ukraine guarantees the citizens of the republic, regardless of their national origin, equal political, social, economic and cultural rights and freedoms, supports the development of national self-awareness and self-expression.
- Art. 10 Ukraine guarantees the free development, use and protection of Russian and other languages of national minorities of Ukraine.
- Art. 11 The state promotes the consolidation and development of the Ukrainian nation, its historical consciousness, traditions and culture, as well as the development of ethnic, cultural, linguistic and religious identity of all indigenous peoples and national minorities of Ukraine.
Explanation:It is worth recalling that until the 11th century there was the only Christian church centered in Constantinople. Due to a split based on doctrinal differences, the Orthodox Church separated from the Roman Catholic Church. The Kyiv metropolitanate was the center of Orthodoxy in Russia until the decline of Kyiv due to the Mongol invasion in the 1240s. At the same time, Constantinople fell into disrepair and became part of the Muslim Ottoman Empire. In the 14th century, the Lithuanian metropolitanate was established as part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. And at the end of the 16th century the Brest Union was signed - the transition of the Kyiv metropolitanate under the protectorate of the Pope (creation of the Greek Catholic Church, the Uniate). Several factors contributed to the signing of the union, the most important being the avoidance of Moscow's influence. The Uniates retained their rites, the language of worship, were equated with the Catholics in the Commonwealth, and the church elite received a number of privileges. But the union had many opponents, it only intensified the confrontation among Ukrainians. And there was no "our spiritual unity." Moscow princes repeatedly tried to ordain their Moscow metropolitans. The mention in the title of Metropolitan as Metropolitan of Kiev and All Russia did not suit the Moscow princes, they needed a separate Moscow patriarch. However, it was with the title of metropolitans of Kyiv and All Russia that they were ordained in Constantinople until the 16th century, and finally in Muscovy they created their own, unrecognized structure. Historian Kirill Galushko explains that in 1448 the Moscow diocese separated from Constantinople and remained uncanonical (unrecognized by Constantinople) for a century. The Moscow Church was recognized as early as 1589. At the initiative of the Moscow government at the end of 1684 the Moscow tsars Peter and John sent a request to Constantinople to the Patriarch of Constantinople, where they wrote that the Kiev chair was empty and encroached upon by Bishop Joseph Shumlyansky. Accordingly, the Moscow tsars want the Metropolitan of Kiev to be ordained in Moscow. Like, the whole Ukrainian people asked for it. Historian Yevhen Nikolsky explains that the Ukrainian clergy were opposed to the appointment of a metropolitan from Moscow. This manifested itself in the non-recognition of this metropolitan until the appearance of the charters from Constantinople. He draws attention to the fact that the Moscow Patriarch ruled in another's canonical territory without consent, in fact appointing an archpastor, blessing schismatic cathedrals and blackmailing the Orthodox with a "Uniate" threat to annex the Kyiv metropolitanate. Moscow authorities resorted to black PR to annex the Kyiv metropolitanate in 1686. And then there was the humiliation of the Ukrainian church to the level of a simple diocese. During the Soviet era, the Russian Church worked closely with the KGB. During the Revolution of Dignity, the churches of the Moscow Patriarchate openly pursued anti-Ukrainian rhetoric and incited hostility. The people reacted accordingly and the faithful and entire parishes began to move to the Kyiv Patriarchate. In 2019, the Ukrainian Orthodox Church received the status of an autocephalous (independent) church from the Patriarch of Constantinople and received a tomos. Constantinople recognized the UOC as the successor to the Kyiv metropolitanate, which existed in the XI-XIII centuries. Thus exposing the centuries-old falsification of the ROC. Of course, the ROC did not recognize this and declared secession from Constantinople.
Explanation:Russia's attempts within the UN to prove to someone unknown for decades. Traditionally, civilized countries have received these statements with restraint and, as a rule, do not vote or abstain. This clearly shows that modern Russia has its own, separate interpretation of Nazism. This clearly shows that modern Russia has its own, separate interpretation of Nazism, which is not taken into account by other countries in which this issue has really been studied. In particular, to date, a complete, uncensored collection of materials from the Nuremberg Trials on the leaders of the Nazi regime has not been published. Therefore, Soviet-Russian public opinion operates with its own fictional interpretations. At the same time, the current Putin government does not want to open archives (in Ukraine, the KGB archives have long been made public by the SBU) for objective study of history, bans research topics and represses researchers who have a different view of Soviet cooperation with the German Empire how this is determined by the Russian totalitarian ideology. Thus, Putin strongly denies the joint Soviet attack on Poland with Hitler in 1939. That is why Russian citizens do not know their true history, and such articles are aimed at one thing - to present a "single correct" version of the past, in which everyone needs to believe. This creates a fictional reality that has nothing to do with reality. It is especially important for modern Russia to use such propaganda rhetoric (for example, a list of myths against Ukraine)): to divert attention from its actions against Ukraine, Georgia and other countries that are characterized by crimes against humanity.
Explanation:Putin is imposing lies. There has been no march in Ukraine in honor of war criminals. According to the Nuremberg tribunal, neither the OUN nor the UPA have been recognized as criminal organizations. Putin's historians' interpretation of Ukrainian characters of the past "Love for Moscow" is the only worthy destination of states, and both Putin and his propagandists constantly forget about the regular and persistent support of the Russian-Soviet regime for Hitler, their complicity in World War II and and the collaborationism of the Russians. Crimes are being fabricated: as an example, Bandera, who allegedly collaborated with the Nazis, although he was arrested and in a concentration camp, and his brothers died at the hands of the Hitler regime. On June 23, 1941, on behalf of the OUN, signed by Stepan Bandera and Volodymyr Stakhiv, a 14-page memorandum was sent to Adolf Hitler, emphasizing that the organization's main task was to restore an independent Ukrainian state: "Even if German troops marched into Ukraine." will be greeted first, obviously as liberators, this instruction may change quickly when Germany comes to Ukraine without any promises of its intention to restore the Ukrainian state. […] Ukrainians are determined to create conditions guarantee national development in an independent state. pursues its own interests in building a new order in Eastern Europe, must take this resolution into account. " The fact that Putin continues to brand certain personalities shows who Russia fears and considers dangerous to itself and its methods. Ukrainians are doing everything to make the real story known, not how Russia is rewriting it. Read the refutation of propaganda myths about Mazepa here and here Read more about Petliura Another branch of Russian historical fiction concerns the activities of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army..
Explanation:The interpretation of the Second World War by both the USSR and Russia is the same and traditionally manipulative. It is based on the desire to reduce the participation of Ukrainians in the war to a "single" view of those events (about the formation of the "myth of the Great Patriotic War - read here) To reduce the events of 7 years to one interpretation is a consequence of the politicization of the past by Russia and the desire to "privatize" the defeat of Hitler. Another reason is to hide the cooperation between the USSR and Hitler's Germany against democratic countries. It is in modern Russia that it has acquired distorted forms, which have even received their own separate term - "victory frenzy". Instead, Ukraine, like all human civilization, honors the memory of war victims. At the same time, no one forgets the courage and heroism of soldiers who fought for their homeland under different flags and in different armies. After all, it was on the territory of Ukraine that the greatest battles took place and the people of our state suffered the most from the war. Therefore, to speak to Putin's propaganda about forgetting their feat is a deliberate lie. On the contrary, veterans of World War II and the modern war against Russia are united in their views in defense of Ukraine. But in addition to pathetic words and statements, Ukraine and the world are concerned about providing war veterans with the social benefits they deserve. The state of Ukraine is also aware that most of the participants in the bloody battles had no choice under which banner to fight. All the more important is that in the clash of two criminal regimes - Hitler's and the Soviet - we were able to put on the agenda our own, independence struggle for independence in the form of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army!
Explanation:The "anti-Russia" project has never existed in Ukraine. This is a fabrication of Russian propaganda to justify interference in Ukraine's affairs, armed aggression and the outbreak of war in Ukraine. The "anti-Russia" project was first discussed in 2010. Then Stoletie.ru reported that Mikheil Saakashvili was trying to carry out an "anti-Russia" project in Georgia. In 2011, which published seven conspiracy books with titles such as The Dulles Doctrine in Action or Zbigniew Brzezinski: Making Russia a Pawn. In general, this thesis about Ukraine has been rising since 2012. The narrative "anti-Russia" is introduced by Russia itself. Stories about the so-called "anti-Russia" project are spreading online, mostly in the Russian media. Western (English-language) publications mention him when commenting on Putin's article.
Explanation:" Historical Choice " is a pseudo-referendum under the barrels of Russian machine guns after the seizure of the Crimean , in violation of Ukrainian and international law. The figures of the so-called referendum speak exclusively of fraud: voter turnout allegedly amounted to 83.10%, despite the boycott of the referendum by Crimean Tatars.The population in Sevastopol on November 1, 2013 amounted to 383,499 people, but the"referendum " supported the accession to the Russian Federation 474,137 people, that is, 123% of the population. Ukrainian authorities did not recognize the Crimean "referendum". It demands that Russia liberate the peninsula and withdraw its army. The same position was expressed by the authorities of the European Union, most European countries and the United States, which imposed sanctions on the Russian authorities in Crimea and Russia itself. From year to year, restrictive measures are continued, and new ones are imposed in solidarity with Ukraine. Russia's annexation of Crimea has been condemned by reputable international organizations, including the United Nations, the OSCE, the Council of Europe and others, with hundreds of documents on the issue. Putin substitutes the notion and calls the attack on Ukraine "peacefully trying to defend his position." It was under the control of Russian forces that the occupation of parts of the eastern regions took place.
Explanation:When Putin writes that the people of Donetsk and Luhansk have taken up arms, he is probably referring to April 12, 2014, when an armed group of Russian militants led by former Russian military leader Igor Girkin seized Donbas. It was Russia that launched an armed aggression against Ukraine, seized Crimea and continues to supply weapons to the occupied territories. Ukraine is a multinational state where human and civil rights are respected. As a result of the Russian aggression, as of February 2021, about 1.5 million migrants were registered in Ukraine - people who left the temporarily occupied territories of Donetsk and Luhansk regions and the Autonomous Republic of Crimea. These are the people who had the opportunity to leave the Novorossiya project and what the occupiers did with their homes. One of the narratives of Russian propaganda is to justify the armed aggression in Donbass by saying that Donbass found itself within Ukraine "by accident", that only "Russian-speakers" live there, who are about to be destroyed by Ukrainian "Nazis" because all Ukrainians are "Nazis". This is a lie that has nothing to do with reality. It was under the control of Russian forces that the occupation of parts of the eastern regions took place. On July 17, a Malays Airlines flight MH17 was shot down over a militant-controlled part of the Donetsk region, killing 298 people. The investigation established that the plane was shot down by a missile from the Buk anti-aircraft missile system, which belongs to the 53rd anti-aircraft missile brigade of the Russian Armed Forces, based near Kursk. On the eve of the tragedy, the Russian Buk was transported to the occupied part of Donbass through the uncontrolled part of Kyiv's border with Russia, and the next night after the plane crash it was returned to Russia. Through the uncontrolled section of the Ukrainian-Russian state border, Russia continues to supply weapons, ammunition and fuel to the occupied territory of Donbass to strengthen units of the Russian regular army and armed groups supported by it.
Explanation:By the events in Odessa, Putin is trying to justify the capture of cities in the Donbass. However, chronologically, the first was the invasion of Russian militants. Russian propagandists spread a number of fakes about those events and introduced the narrative "Odessa Khatyn", which presents the events of the tragedy of May 2, 2014 in Odessa in a favorable way. The tragedy in Odessa is a consequence of the end of the confrontation between Russian supporters (anti-Maidan activists) and pro-Ukrainian forces. The first dead - the corporal of "Right Sector" "Igor Ivanov and the activist of the Euromaidan Andrey Biryukov. According to the head of the UN Human Rights Monitoring Mission, Matilda Bogner, on May 2, 2014, about 300 well-organized "supporters of federalization" attacked about 2,000 "supporters of unity". Among them were locals and many football fans who came from Kharkiv for the football match that was to take place that evening, and who were known for their principled position in support of Ukraine's unity. Clashes between the two groups broke out in the city center and lasted for several hours. Both groups used firearms, killing six people - four "supporters of federalization" and two "supporters of unity." "We were at the scene and witnessed how groups of" supporters of federalization "" began throwing stones and "Molotov cocktails" at the marchers in support of the unity of Ukraine. The situation got out of hand when the police were unable to respond effectively to the violence on both sides, despite early warnings about the high probability of such a development, " - Bogner said. According to researcher Svitlana Bondar, one of the most insidious and effective cognitive concepts in the modern information war is empty in content, but emotional - "Odessa Khatyn". There is no clearly defined semantic meaning in the Ukrainian language, which is not surprising given its artificiality and manipulative nature. Vladislav Balinsky, a witness to the events and a member of the May 2 expert journalism group, explains: "At the hottest moment, when Russia's open aggression against Ukraine began, this myth about"Odessa Khatyn" was used by the Kremlin propaganda in order to gather volunteers from Russia and intimidate people. Andthis propaganda has worked and is working against Ukraine". Read more about the tragedy of May 2
Explanation:A typical technology of Russian propaganda, which is to intimidate the mythical Bandera and massacre. This has nothing to do with what is happening in Ukraine. Ukrainians stand for an independent state that respects human and civil rights. In addition, Russian troops captured Crimea long before the events in Odessa.
Explanation:Rewriting history, when the struggle for an independent Ukraine and values close to Ukrainians, Russian propaganda calls a coup d'etat. The thesis of a coup is one of the main narratives of Russian propaganda. People who dare to disagree with the authorities pose a threat to the authoritarian regime. Under Ukrainian law, a coup d'etat is a criminal offense and involves a violent and unconstitutional change of political regime. Ex-President Yanukovych secretly but voluntarily fled to Russia, so the Verkhovna Rada, in accordance with the current legislation, elected an interim acting President and continued to function in the original composition of the VII convocation until November 27, 2014 of the Constitution of Ukraine. The Russian-Ukrainian war is taking place on the territory of Ukraine. Fear and terror reign in the occupied territories, the occupying power acts with repressive methods and intimidation, and systematically and massively violates human rights and freedoms. The critical human rights situation in the occupied Crimea was condemned by UN General Assembly Resolution 71/205 "Human Rights Situation in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the City of Sevastopol (Ukraine)" of December 19, 2016. Fighting in eastern Ukraine began after Russia illegally annexed Crimea, and pro-Russian militants backed by it began seizing government offices and storming military units in the Donbas.
Explanation:Putin is manipulating, focusing on children and the elderly. The victims of the Russian-Ukrainian war, according to the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, in the period from April 14, 2014 to January 31, 2021 were 42,000-44,000 people. 13100-13300 people died. Of these, at least 3,375 are civilians, about 4,150 are Ukrainian military and about 5,700 are members of armed groups.
Explanation:Russia is really doing everything to stop the war it is waging with Ukraine. Russia is pressing with military force, economically, informationally, to make Ukraine lose. Russia is not interested in ending the war as a goal, it is interested in destroying Ukraine as an independent state.
Explanation:It is good that Putin finally recognizes that the Minsk agreements were concluded between the parties to the war, Ukraine and Russia, as well as the OSCE mediator. Russian propaganda has the opportunity to insist that the agreement was signed between Ukraine and these individuals (leaders of terrorist organizations that seized parts of Donetsk and Luhansk regions), and Russia calls itself the regulator, when in fact the OSCE. UN resolution calls on the parties to the war, the Russian Federation and Ukraine to come to an agreement and implement the Minsk agreements. Despite the fact that the UN Security Council supported and approved the fact and text of the package of measures of the Minsk agreements, the relevant resolution does not contain statements that they are binding. Russia is sabotaging its commitments, not recognizing itself as a signatory, even with its signatures. The Minsk agreements are only political in nature and are not an international legal act. The Russian side insists that the Minsk agreements are a "law" or an international legal act, the clauses of which are binding and cannot be revised. First of all, the Russian delegation insists on this in order to ensure consistent implementation of the points. In particular, about local elections. Realizing that Ukraine will not accept unacceptable conditions, Russia continues to block the negotiation process. According to MP Oleksandr Merezhko, Russia is not interested in implementing the agreements, as the conflict in Donbas helps Russia keep Ukraine in its field of influence and destabilize the situation. In addition, as soon as the issue of Donbass is resolved, the issue of Crimea will be on the agenda, which is unprofitable and inconvenient for Russia. More here
Explanation:Valery Chaly, Chairman of the Board of the Ukrainian Crisis Media Center, explains that in addition to Russia sabotaging the implementation of the agreements, Russian propaganda is actively claiming that Ukraine is not fulfilling the Minsk agreements. According to Volodymyr Vasylenko, an international lawyer, if we look at the Minsk agreements as political agreements, which they are, they could be the basis for restoring international law and order, but only if both sides show good will. Ukraine has shown such good will by going to a ceasefire, but Russia has not. Moreover, Russia refuses to recognize itself only as a party to the conflict. In the framework of the Minsk process, it calls itself a mediating party, although it is not and never has been. The Tripartite Contact Group includes Russia, Ukraine and the OSCE mediator, and Ukraine has agreed to such mediation by the OSCE. There are no external patrons or owners in Ukraine. This is a fabrication of Russian propaganda to create the image of the enemy. According to Oleksiy Reznikov, Deputy Prime Minister - Minister for Reintegration of the Temporarily Occupied Territories of Ukraine, Ukraine has repeatedly demonstrated its readiness to restart the peace process. However, as it is not possible to implement the existing agreements in their current state, renewal of these agreements is a necessary precondition for any further progress. He stressed that Ukraine has fulfilled almost all the commitments made at the "Norman format" summit in Paris in December 2019. "" There have been two mutual releases of detainees since then. We have identified 19 plots of land for humanitarian demining and four new areas for demining. For the first time since the conflict began in 2014, a five-month ceasefire was signed. Despite the imperfections, this ceasefire has undoubtedly saved lives, "he said. According to him, since the summer of 2020, Russian opponents have used all the pretexts to paralyze the Tripartite Contact Group and abandon their commitments. Ukraine has submitted its plan to implement the Minsk agreements, but the Russian side has not presented its vision.
Explanation:The author expresses an opinion that is not supported by facts, while actively manipulating arguments. There is no clear understanding of what the inhabitants of the Ukrainian occupied territories want, as it is impossible to conduct a full-fledged unbiased study during the war, so the first argument is just a private opinion. The Minsk Agreements are nothing more than another attempt to bring these agreements to the level of legally binding agreements, to equate them with international agreements, which in fact these documents are not exist. They are purely advisory in nature and do not determine the legal consequences if the agreements have been violated. The Russian version of negotiations with their mediation is unacceptable for Ukraine, as Russia is a stakeholder in the conflict. The phrase about internal and external enemies is a lie and a narrative with which today's Russia lives: "Again they climb ... Enemies of Russia as an eternal theme." We can sadly say that even in the eighth year of the war, not all Ukrainians consider Russia an enemy. Appendix on the protectorate - given that the whole article is written to show the independence of Ukraine, then, of course, any activity of our country in the imagination of Putin and his propagandists is exclusively under the protectorate. And if this is not his protectorate, then this is the protectorate of the West. Read more
Explanation:Sociologists record the existing fears in society, but they relate mainly to social reasons - fear of losing their jobs (especially during quarantine);rising prices and tariffs. In Ukrainian society, the factors are fears caused by tragedies of the Soviet era, such as the Holodomor. That is why the instigation of fears is a lie spread by the President of Russia. Regarding the spread of aggressive rhetoric, it should be noted that this term is often used in Russian political discourse (translation - - aggressive rhetoric, belligerent rhetoric), for the Ukrainian discourse closer understanding of the concept of "hate speech" (Hate speech). Despite the different contexts, they can be considered together because of their belonging to one broader concept - communication based on prejudice and discrimination. Ukraine is studying the issue of hate speech in the media, speeches by politicians and social networks on sensitive topics. These studies show the presence of hate speech, but not on a large scale - according to an IMI report, "on average, news about national minorities or ethnic groups accounted for 0.6% of the total news in regional online media." Even in the most acute moments of 2014, "the use of" hate speech "in the coverage of military events in the east of the country did not show much difference between different media" (and, according to experts, most "hate speech" was found on social networks (4.4 points) on average), in online publications (3.8), "slightly lower on television (3.4), and on radio and in the print media it is the least intense - 2.2 and 1.9 points." In Ukraine, there are a number of normative acts aimed at counteracting the spread of hate speech, as well as international normative rules and recommendations. Putin also continues to label and disseminate a propaganda narrative about neo-Nazis. In addition, it is Russia that finances the pseudo-Nazis in Ukraine. For example, in June 2020, the SBU exposed a neo-Nazi radical group headed by a Russian citizen. And not only in Ukraine, but also in the United States. A BBC investigation revealed that the American neo-Nazi militant group "Base" was supervised from Russia. According to journalist-analyst Oles Oleksienko, the Russian propaganda machine's special attention to the "rampant neo-Nazism in Ukraine" continues to make it a key horror story that should discredit our country in the world and intimidate the Russian population. But in fact, not only neo-Nazism, but simply nationalism in Ukraine is much less popular than in most countries in both Western and Central and Eastern Europe. Read more
Explanation:Ukraine is an independent democracy. Putin labels foreign governance, which does not exist. The same applies to NATO's 'infrastructure in Ukraine,' because it does not exist. The status of foreign advisers, in particular, in the military sphere is clearly defined and does not provide direct influence on decision-making by the Ukrainian side, meetings / consultations are held periodically, but not even annually. "Military conquest" of part of the territory of Ukraine is currently carried out by only one country - the Russian Federation, which annexed Crimea and captured part of Donetsk and Luhansk regions. It is not known what deployment of NATO infrastructure is in question. Ukraine, like Russia, is institutionalizing cooperation with NATO: – "NATO has established special cooperation mechanisms with countries such as Russia, Ukraine and, more recently, Georgia." In order to improve Ukraine's and NATO's disaster preparedness capabilities, a Memorandum of Understanding on Emergency Planning and Disaster Preparedness was concluded in 1997, identifying key areas of mutual interest for further cooperation. Although this is not about any infrastructure. It is also possible that this is a joint effort of Ukraine and NATO to protect critical infrastructure, work in this direction has been going on since at least 2017 and concerns cybersecurity, counter-terrorism, pandemic, etc. Putin is again juggling facts, substituting them. For example, on May 19, Deputy Prime Minister for European and Euro-Atlantic Integration Olga Stefanishina said that " A common goal for Ukraine and NATO is to increase resilience. We agreed to intensify our cooperation in this area and welcomed the start of preparations for the staff exercises for the protection of critical energy infrastructure, which will take place in September 2021 in Ukraine. Feel the difference between "protecting critical energy infrastructure" and "deploying NATO infrastructure". According to Texty.org.ua disinformation monitoring analyst Petro Bondar, on the one hand, Russian propaganda convinces that NATO is ineffective and unnecessary. On the other hand, the prospect of Ukraine's accession to NATO causes a surge of manipulative materials in the Russian media. Propagandists even calculate the time of missile approach from Ukraine to Moscow, forgetting that the Baltic states (NATO members) also fly close, and in Eastern Europe there are no American missiles that could hit Russia. But even if they were here, it does not give Russia any right to attack or threaten other independent states. Read more here
Explanation:The Law “On the Indigenous Peoples of Ukraine” (№5506) was adopted on July 1, 2021 by 325 deputies (more than the constitutional majority) of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine. President Volodymyr Zelensky introduced this initiative to the Verkhovna Rada on May 18 - on the Day of Remembrance of the victims of the genocide of the Crimean Tatar people. The terms of joint exercises with NATO were set at the governmental level in advance, from the beginning of 2021, and the decision to admit foreign troops for further exercises was made by the National Security and Defense Council of Ukraine on July 16 after the Verkhovna Rada passed the law. It will be recalled that Russia has a law on indigenous peoples: "On guarantees of the rights of indigenous peoples of the Russian Federation", there are many more - about 50 and there are no Ukrainians, and can not be, because we are a national minority there as they are here. Why does Putin, having such a law, speak so badly about ours, which meets all international norms? Maybe because it is advantageous for him to broadcast the ubiquitous "violation" of Russian rights? Rhetorical question. This law does not introduce any inequality or second class, it gives rights to those who were deprived of them. It was adopted without any restraint or cover-up.
Explanation:According to a study by the Center for Economic Strategy, Ukraine has lost $ 135 billion in 7 years since Russia's annexation of Crimea. This is three quarters of Ukraine's GDP since the last pre-annexation in 2013. - there is a loss of Crimean subsoil, which involves billions in losses of both public and private companies that operated or had branches on the peninsula. According to former Minister for the Temporarily Occupied Territories and Internally Displaced Persons of Ukraine Vadym Chernysh, Russia illegally exports 2.8 million tons of anthracite coal from the occupied Donbass each year, valued at $ 288 million. This is a brazen robbery of Ukrainian territories and the Ukrainian population, as the subsoil is the property of the people of Ukraine. Therefore, it is not NATO exercises that cover the exploitation and absorption of natural resources, but Russia's external aggression and occupation of Ukrainian territories.
Explanation:Land market scarecrows are constantly being spread by pro-Russian media in Ukraine, populists and propagandists. Calling the introduction of the land market a sale of agricultural land is a label of Russian propaganda. The land market in Ukraine started operating on July 1, 2021. We are talking about lifting the moratorium on the sale of agricultural land, which has been in force since 2001. Currently, only individuals can buy land. For legal entities, this option will be available in 2024. However, there are a number of restrictions for legal entities: they must be registered in Ukraine, and their participants can only be citizens of Ukraine and / or the state and / or local communities. Foreigners cannot buy land in Ukraine until a nationwide referendum is held. By 2024, one hand" can buy no more than 100 hectares of land. Current tenants of the land have a preemptive right to purchase it. As of August 1, the average price of 1 hectare of arable land in Ukraine is UAH 26.8 thousand - which is almost in line with the average regulatory monetary value. As of August 19, according to the Ministry of Agrarian Policy, 7,897 agreements have been concluded within the land market. By the way, the land market (which is also closed to foreigners) in Russia has been operating since 2003. So I wonder what is so obvious to Vladimir Putin about the land market in Ukraine?
Explanation:This is probably Ukraine's national debt and possibly IMF loans. Since Vladimir Putin does not say what he means, everyone draws their own conclusions. This is called "blurring". Everyone draws conclusions from available information that is not it is always based on facts, and that is what propaganda is all about. According to analyst Serhiy Drobot, the public debt ratio is an important, but not the only, indicator of the presence or absence of problems: some developed countries have very high debt-to-GDP ratios. Therefore, in addition to the size, also important are the cost of borrowing, the currency structure of public debt and the schedule of payments on it. As for Ukraine, Russia's external aggression and Yanukovych's mistakes led to an economic downturn in 2014-2015. Accordingly, the 60% devaluation of the hryvnia led to a rapid increase in the ratio of public debt to GDP of Ukraine: from 40% in 2013 to 81% in 2016. Due to the restructuring of part of the debt in 2015, structural reforms and the resumption of economic growth, the ratio of public debt to GDP was reduced to 72% in 2017, which, however, remains one of the highest in Eastern Europe. Our neighbors Belarus and Poland have a public debt of 50% of GDP, and in Romania - approx. 40%. At the same time, in such developed countries as the United States and Japan, the ratio of public debt to the size of the economy is much higher than in Ukraine (108% and 236%, respectively - data for 2017). You can get acquainted with the indicators of gross domestic debt in different countries here. . For example, in Germany, Italy, Spain and Austria it is more than 100% of GDP. As for IMF loans, it is not only about money, but also about confidence in the country's economy and the fact that the state is taking the right steps to improve the situation. According to Yaroslav Zhalil, Deputy Director of the National Institute for Strategic Studies, the IMF, amid high political turbulence, confirms that Ukraine is moving in the right direction of economic transformation, which is a signal to foreign investors, other creditors or institutional partners. Fund support is an important signal for other potential borrowers, such as the World Bank or the EU, as well as domestic and international investors. Loans from the IMF are profitable for countries, given that money is borrowed at relatively low interest rates: 2-3% against, for example, 8-12%, for which Ukraine sells Eurobonds. The IMF provides funds with the requirement of certain reforms. Unfortunately, due to a number of internal problems, as well as external aggression, Ukraine does not always follow the sequence. At one time, Estonia and Slovakia, with the help of the IMF, were able to successfully complete the necessary reforms, improve the economic situation and join the EU in 2004.
Explanation:The "anti-Russia" narrative is being introduced by Russia itself. Stories about the so-called "anti-Russia" project are being spread on the Internet, mostly by the Russian media. Western (English-language) publications mention it when commenting on Putin's article. "Anti-Russia" started talking back in 2010. At that time, Stoletie.ru reported that Mikheil Saakashvili was trying to implement an anti-Russia project in Georgia. In 2011, the EXMO publishing house launched the Anti-Russia Project series, which published seven conspiracy books with titles such as The Dulles Doctrine in Action or Zbigniew Brzezinski: Making Russia a Pawn. In general, this thesis about Ukraine has been rising since 2012. During the war, there were no calls for enmity between Russia in politicians' election programs. Obviously, the Kremlin's desire to defend its borders and territories is perceived as enmity.
Explanation:The issue of resolving the situation in eastern Ukraine is only one of the 9 election slogans of Volodymyr Zelensky. And it states the vision of Ukraine in NATO and the EU, that is, no deception in this matter. Regarding the mentioned worsening of the situation in Donbass. At the beginning of 2021 the OSCE Special Monitoring Mission reported that in 2020 there were 55% fewer cases of violations of the silence regime than in 2019. Therefore, to say that the situation in Donbass has deteriorated since the arrival of President Zelensky is manipulative. actions by the party that started the war. The illegal occupation of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol was only the first step taken by the Russian Federation to undermine Ukraine's independence and sovereignty. The Kremlin leadership has always been firmly convinced that without control over Ukraine, Russia will never become a world leader, and a democratic and prosperous Ukraine will threaten the preservation of the current authoritarian rule in Russia. That is why the next stage of Russian aggression was an attempt to destabilize the situation in the eastern and southern regions of Ukraine in order to form a quasi-state in this territory.
Explanation:The narrative of the anti-Russia project was created by Russia itself. The anti-Russia project was first discussed in 2010. At that time, Stoletie.ru reported that Mikheil Saakashvili was trying to implement the project in Georgia. " anti-Russia " Then this history of development did not receive and for some time died. In 2011 the publishing house "EXMO" launched a series "Project AntiRussia", which published seven conspiracy books with such titles as "The Dulles Doctrine in the action" or "Zbigniew Brzezinski: to make Russia a pawn". In general, this thesis about Ukraine has been raised in one way or another since 2012. On sovereignty, I would like to remind you that a month earlier than Ukraine, on July 1, 1990, Russia adopted the Declaration of Sovereignty. On this day, Russia Day is celebrated, because the word sovereignty means "Sovereignty, m. Souveraineté,> German. Sovereignty. Complete independence of the state from other states in its internal affairs and foreign policy". But most ordinary Russians are convinced that Ukraine was the first to choose independence. There are political forces in Ukraine that defend its real independence. Of course, these are patriots who see Russia as an enemy. The aggressor country violated Ukraine's sovereignty and started a war in eastern Ukraine.
Explanation:The pro-Russian agent in Ukraine is Vladimir Putin's godfather, the leader of the OPZH party, Viktor Medvedchuk. His ally, Taras Kozak, owned three TV channels, 112, ZIK and NewsOne, which actively disseminated pro-Russian propaganda. President Volodymyr Zelenskyi issued a decree earlier than Medvedchuk's counterpart in the Taras Kozak faction and his own TV channels.Learn more... and here. Just before the publication of the article, the OPZH party established a sign of friendship between peoples. The sign was dismantled again because the decision was made on July 8, 2021. However, such provocations suit those who are connected with Russia and implement Russian propaganda narratives.
Explanation:Again, the project and narrative" "anti-Russia" was invented by Russia itself in 2010. Then the publication "Stoletie.ru" reported that Mikheil Saakashvili in Georgia is trying to implement the project "" anti-Russia "" Then this history did not receive any movement and for a while died. In 2011, the EXMO publishing house launched the Anti-Russia Project series, which published seven conspiracy books with titles such as "The Dulles Doctrine in Action" or "Zbigniew Brzezinski: to make Russia a pawn".In general, this thesis about Ukraine has been raised since 2012. There is no such project in Ukraine, so it cannot be acceptable or not. Ukraine has chosen its own path of development, which Russia stubbornly refuses to accept and for this purpose even occupied part of the territory and violated Ukraine's sovereignty.
Explanation:According to Putin's spokesman Dmitry Peskov: "Putin is well aware of the situation in Ukraine, as he communicates with Medvedchuk on December 28, 2020." Based on the words of his godfather Viktor Medvedchuk, Putin speaks of some mythical repression. Sanctions against Viktor Medvedchuk and his ally Taras Kozak were imposed on the SBU,The basis for the sanctions against people's deputies from the Opposition Platform for Life and related legal entities was the investigation of the SBU, , which found that coal supply schemes from the occupied territories were helping to finance terrorism.But it would be good to mention other surnames. We see that the author of the article receives information about cases in Ukraine not from archives or open sources, but from private conversations with his godfather Viktor Medvedchuk, who is known for his pro-Russian position. Such information cannot be a priori objective. Vladimir Putin also keeps silent about the persecution of Crimean Tatars in the Russian-occupied Crimea. Back in 2017, Human Rights Watch published a study , stating that the persecution was based on pro-Ukrainian views. These persecutions continue to this day ((here is one of the last examples) ) — - almost everyone is accused of extremist activities or similar violations. As of early 2021, there were 109 Ukrainian political prisoners in Russia.
Explanation:In Ukraine, there are no criteria for patriots such as "correct", "sincere", etc. It is all the more inappropriate to assume that one of the types of evaluation would be hatred of Russia. A sign of patriotism is always love for the Motherland.If to talk about Ukraine, the most important task today is to protect national statehood. The author's excitement about hatred of Russia is not clear if he claims to support millions of people. Further according to the familiar scenario: Russia pretends to declassify the project and narrative invented by her "anti-Russia" and threatens to interfere in the internal affairs of Ukraine under any pretext. The shaky basis for sovereignty is armed aggression, occupation of foreign territory, information special operations. This is where Russia builds its "greatness ". "Our historical territories", "close people" - is a lowland mockery, because every day there is shelling in the east of our state. It was Russia that occupied part of Ukrainian territory. Russia cannot stop because it wants to control the Black Sea. We want to say that Russia will destroy itself if it does not move to a civilized field of relations, law and coexistence of states.
Explanation:Neighboring relations are really good, but they do not attack each other, unlike Russia, which has occupied Ukrainian territories and has been waging war on Ukraine for 7 years. Ukraine and Russia have different languages. "In fact, the United States and Canada cannot be" one language ", as they are united by only one common language - English, and Canada is also partially French-speaking. At the same time, both in the United States and in Canada there are a large number of dialects of both English (USA and Canada) and French (Canada). In the United States, there are only three official dialects of English, to which are added the peculiarities of the language in almost every state. There are also dialects in Canada.If we talk about Austria and Germany, Austria is dominated by the Bavarian dialect of German, German and a number of regional languages. We emphasize that Ukraine and Russia have different languages, and Russia has occupied part of Ukraine. As for "relatives", there are currently no Ukrainian-language schools in Russia with 2 million Ukrainians. As of 2020, there were 125 Russian-language schools in Ukraine and another 43 privately taught in Russian, with8 million people here..
Explanation:In fact, Russia is open to dialogue with Ukraine only on its own terms. That is, only when our country gives up its national interests, in particular, abandons European integration, development of the Ukrainian language and Ukrainian self-identification, accepts annexation of Crimea, etc. You can find quite a lot up to 2014: the conflict around the spit of Tuzla; the conflict after the plane crash over the Black Sea (2001), for which Ukraine pays compensation to relatives of the dead without legal liability, and finally the so-called "Cold War for Crimea" 1992-1994 ., or the Crimean crisis, in which Russia sought to gain control of the peninsula and culminated in the signing of an agreement between Russia and Ukraine on the parameters of the division of the Black Sea Fleet, all of which took place long before 2014. The most difficult issue for Russia is the occupation of other territories of Ukraine to control the Black Sea. Ukraine is faced with the choice of occupation or war. "The author calls the influence of the EU countries and the United States" foreign interests "? But it is the internal affairs of the state with whom and how to maintain relations. Being "a weapon in someone's hands to fight us" is for the author, perhaps, NATO support? Ukraine is an independent and democratic state. It is Ukraine that is turning to NATO for help in connection with Russia's aggression. The author made a reservation about waging war with other people's hands not by chance, because this is how he is going to win by deception, manipulation, and cunning. Vladimir Putin answered journalists' questions about the situation in Ukraine on March 4, 2014: "Listen carefully. I want you to clearly understand me if we make such a decision - only to protect Ukrainian citizens. And let someone from the military try to shoot at their people, behind whom we will stand behind, not in front, but behind. Let them try to shoot women and children! And I will look at those who will give such an order in Ukraine. Ukraine is not Russia.
Explanation:This article, which is full of lies and manipulation, best shows the real contempt for Ukraine and Russia's desire to secure control over our state at all costs. Russia occupied Crimea and part of Donetsk and Luhansk regions, and started a war. As for respect for the Ukrainian language, according to MP Lisa Yasko at a meeting of the PACE Committee, as of 2020 the Russian occupation authorities in Crimea have closed all educational institutions where Ukrainian was taught and left only a few institutions where Crimean Tatar is taught. Approximately half a million Ukrainians in Crimea are deprived of the opportunity to communicate and teach their children in their native language.. Valentyna Potapova, head of the Almenda Center for Civic Education, claims that finding Ukrainian language teachers in Crimea outside the school is very problematic. "" The Ukrainian language on the peninsula is almost destroyed. Currently, about 0.01% of Crimean schoolchildren have the opportunity to teach it. There is a school with 150 students near Feodosia, and it is regularly reported by the Russian authorities. I would say that this does not indicate free access to the study of the Ukrainian language - rather, it is a Potemkin village. We interviewed entrants, and they said that it is almost impossible to find tutors in the Crimea: teachers are simply afraid to provide such a service, and if they are not afraid, lessons are very expensive, and not all families can afford them, "she said.
Explanation:The greatest challenge and threat to Ukraine's sovereignty is its proximity to Russia, with which economic, political, humanitarian, energy and other spheres have been linked for years since independence. When the Ukrainian people clearly defined the European vector of development, Russia occupied Crimea and started a war in the east of our state. The fact that we have different values is shown by a simple factor - the attitude of Ukrainians and Russians to Stalin. According to KIIS and Levada Center surveys, 45% of respondents in Russia treat Stalin with respect, compared to 15% in Ukraine. In Ukraine, 17% of respondents treat Stalin with hatred and 15% with hostility, and in Russia - only 2% and 5% respectively. Of course, Ukrainians remember that it was Stalin who used terror to starve to keep Ukraine. The Holodomor is a genocide of the Ukrainian nation perpetrated by the Soviet leadership led by Joseph Stalin through an artificial mass famine to exterminate Ukrainians, eliminate Ukrainian resistance to the regime, and try to build an independent Ukrainian state independent of Moscow. In Ukraine, 17 people died of hunger every minute, 1,400 - every hour, more than 30 thousand - every day ... The question of the number of human losses of Ukraine from the Holodomor still remains open. This price was paid by Ukrainians in the 1930s for Ukraine to become independent. And we are now paying a high price for human lives and destinies because of the war that Russia has unleashed on our territory. We are not one nation and we have never been one, despite all Russia's attempts to destroy and rewrite the historical heritage.
7 years of war with its participation speak most eloquently about Russia's anti-Ukrainian position. And the truth is that, indeed, what Ukraine should be like should be decided by its citizens. I would very much like Russia not to interfere in this decision.